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Cornell University 
Announcements 

Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences 
1985 • 1986 



Academic Calendar 1985-86 



1985 



Labor Day Holiday 

Registration for first quarter* and Fall 
semester* orientation for new 
students 

First quarter and Fall semester begin 
First quarter ends 
Examinations for first quarter 

Registration for second quarter* 

Instruction begins for second quarter 
Thanksgiving recess 

Winter recess: Instruction suspended 
5:00 p.m. 



Monday, September 2 



Tuesday and Wednesday, 

September 3 and 4 
Thursday, September 5 
Tuesday, November 5 
Wednesday, November 6- 

Friday, November 8 
Friday, November 8 and 
Monday, November 1 1 
Monday, November 1 1 
Thursday and Friday, 
November 28 and 29 

Friday, December 20 



1986 



Winter recess: Instruction resumed 
9:00 a.m. 

last day for completing requirements for 

January' degrees 
Conferral of January' degrees 
Second quarter and Fall semester end 
Fxaminations for second quarter 

Registration for third quarter* and Spring 
semester"* 

Instruction begins for third quarter 
Washington's Birthday observed 
Iliird quarter ends 
Examinations for third quarter 

Spring rece.ss 

Registration for fourth cjuarter begins 



Monday, January 6 

Friday, January 1 7 
Wednesday, January 22 
Monday, January 27 
Tuesday, January 28- 
Friday, January 3 1 

Friday, January 3 1 and 

Monday, February 3 
Monday, February 3 
Monday, February 17 
Friday, April 4 
Monday, April 17- 

Thursday, April 10 
Monday, April 14, and 

Tuesday, April IS 
Tuesday, April 1 5 and 

Wednesday, April 16 



iv 



Instruction for fourth quarter begins 
Sixth Annual Vincent Du Vigneaud Memo- 
rial Research Symposium; no classes 
Last day for completing requirements for 

May degrees 
Memorial Day Holiday observed 
Commencement Day, conferral of May 
degrees 

Fourth quarter and Spring semester end 
Examinations for fourth quarter 



Wednesday, April 1 6 

Tuesday, May 6 

Friday, May 23 
Monday, May 26 

Wednesday, May 28 
Monday, June 16 
Tuesday, June 17- 
Friday, June 20 



Summer Term 1986 

Registration for summer research 

Summer research term begins 

Last day for completing requirements for 

August degrees 
Summer research term ends 
Conferral of August degrees 



Monday, June 30 
Monday, June 30 

Friday, August 22 
Friday, August 22 
Monday, August 25 



*for students enrolling in courses 
• 'for students conducting research only, who are on leave of absence, <!k are in 
absentia. 

" 'for students changing from course work to research, who are going on leave of 
absence, or who are converting to in absentia status. 

Note: Courses are taught on a quarterly basis; degrees are granted at ends of the 
Fall and Spring semesters and of the summer term. The dates shown in the 
calendar are subject to change at any time by official action of Cornell University. 

In enacting this calendar, the Graduate School of Medical Sciences has scheduled 
classes on religious holidays. It is the intent of the school that students missing 
classes due to the observance of religious holidays be given ample opportunity to 
make up work. 



V 



Contents 



Calendar iv 



Graduate School of Medical Sciences 

Purpose 1 

History 1 

Facilities 2 

Organization 2 

Special Programs (M.D.— Ph.D., Ph.D.— M.D.) 3 



Faculty and Research Activities 

Medical College Division 7 

Sloan-Kettering Division 38 

Interdivisional Program 52 



Requirements and Course Offerings 

Admission 61 

Degree Requirements 62 

Tuition and Fees 65 

Financial Assistance 66 

Scholarships and Fellowships 67 

Awards and Prizes 67 

Student Health Services 68 

Residence Halls 68 

Special Programs (M.D.— Ph.D., Ph.D.— M.D.) 69 

Instruction at the Medical College Division 71 

Instruction at the Sloan Kettering Division 81 

Instruction in the Interdivisional Program 86 



Register 89 



Index 1 1 1 



The courses and curricula described in this Announcement, and the teaching 
personnel listed herein, are as of July 1, 1985 and are subject to change at any time 
by official action of Cornell University. 



Cornell University 

Graduate School of Medical Sciences 



Puq^ose 

The Graduate School of Medical Sciences, a semi-autonomous component of the 
Graduate School of Cornell University', provides opportunities for advanced study 
and research training in specific areas of the biomedical sciences. Graduate 
programs leading to the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy are offered in biochem- 
istr\', biophysics, cell and developmental biolog\\ developmental therapy, genetics, 
immunology, molecular biolog\ , microbiology, neurobiology' and behavior, 
pathology', pharmacology, physiology, and virology. Certain of these fields of study 
also offer programs leading to the degree of Master of Science. (x)llab()rative 
programs with Cornell University Medical College lead to the combined degrees of 
Doctor of Philosophy and Doctor of Medicine. 

The faculty of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences recommends the 
award of advanced general degrees not only as the result of the fulfillment of 
certain formal academic requirements, but also as evidence of the development 
and possession of a critical and creative ability in science. Demonstration of this 
ability is embodied in a dissertation which the candidate presents to the faculty as 
an original research contribution in the chosen area of study. 

A close working relationship between student and faculty is essential to the 
program of the Cornell University Graduate School of Medical Sciences. Guidance 
for each student is provided by a Special Committee, a group of at least three 
faculty members selected by the student. This Special Committee is granted 
extraordinary independence in working with its student. Other than a broad frame- 
work of Graduate School of Medical Sciences requirements for residence, examina- 
tions, and a thesis, and additional requirements of the particular field of study 
chosen by the student, the Special Committee is free to design an individualized 
program of study with its students. No overall course, credit-hour, or grade require- 
ments are set by the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. A student is recom- 
mended for a degree whenever the Special Committee judges the student qualified. 

History 

The opportunity for graduate study leading to ad\ anced general degrees in the 
biomedical sciences was first offered at the Cornell University Medical C>ollege, in 
cooperation with the Graduate School of Cornell University, in 1912. In June of 
1950, Cornell Universirv', in association with the Sloan-Kettering Institute for 
Cancer Research, established additional opportunities for graduate study by 
forming the Sloan-Kettering Division of the Medical (,ollege. The resulting expan- 
sion of both graduate faculty and research training opportunities on the New York 
City campus prompted the organization in January 1952 of the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences, composed of two cooperative but separate dixisions, known as 



1 



the Medical College Division and the Sloan-Kettering Division. The Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences was given full responsibilit}^ for advanced general 
degrees granted for study in residence on the New York City campus of Cornell 
University. 

Facilities 

Despite the divisional structure of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences, the 
courses offered by the two Divisions are open to all students, as are the general 
facilities of the Divisions such as libraries, dining facilities, and recreational 
resources. 

The Medical College Division. The buildings along York Avenue between 68th 
and 70th Streets accommodate both Cornell University Medical College and the 
Medical College Division of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. Facilities 
available to graduate students include the Samuel J. Wood Library with a collection 
of over 127,000 volumes and subscriptions to 1,970 current journals, lecture 
rooms, study laboratories, seminar rooms and libraries of the basic science depart- 
ments. Extensive research facilities are provided for faculty and students. 

The Sloan-Kettering Division. Its facilities are located within the Sloan-Kettering 
Institute for Cancer Research, which consists of the Howard, Kettering, and 
Schwartz Laboratory' buildings on East 68th Street. In addition, the Walker Labora- 
tory- is located in Rye, New York. Each provides lecture and seminar rooms, and 
together represent more than 100 laboratories, which are available for biomedical 
research training. The Lee Coombe Memorial Library with 23,600 volumes of 
books and journals is located in the 68th Street complex. 

Organization 

The faculty of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences is composed of the faculties 
of the .Medical College Division, consisting primarily of the professional staff of the 
basic sciences departments of Cornell University Medical College, and of the Sloan- 
Kettering Division, consisting of those professional staff members of the Sloan- 
Kettering Institute for Cancer Research who hold faculty appointments. 

Within each of the Divisions are Fields (Medical College Division) and Units 
(Sloan Kettering Division ) of graduate instruction which are formed by the faculty 
members in the respective Divisions with similar research and teaching interests. 
These Fields and Units of the (iraduate School of Medical Sciences, as well as the 
Intcrdivisional Program in Molecular Biology, represent areas of concentration in 
which advanced degrees are offered. 

Executive (.ommittee 

Itie Executive (Committee is both the administrative and judicial board of the Grad- 
uate ,Sch()()l of .Medical Sciences and its members have continuing responsibility for 



2 



the academic affairs of the school. The (Committee is composed of the (chairper- 
sons of the basic science departments of the Medical (x)llege Division and of the 
Programs of the Sioan-Kettering Division, the Directors of the interdisciplinar\' and 
interdivisionai programs, the Dean and Associate Deans, the Provost for Medical 
Affairs of Cornell llniversitv', the Director and Associate Director of the Sloan- 
Kettering Division, the (Chairperson and Vice-(Chairpers()n of the Faculty Advisory 
Committee (see below), and two non-voting, elected student representatives. 

The Executive Committee considers such matters involving the interests and 
policies of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences as are referred to it by the 
Faculrv' Advisory Committee, by individual members of the Facult)', or are gener- 
ated upon its own initiative. The Committee approves the addition or deletion of 
fields of study, reviews the admission of students, approves a student's major and 
minor fields, reviews the curriculum and requirements for degrees. 

The Executive Committee is chaired by the Dean, who is the academic admin- 
istrative officer of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences and is also an Associate 
Dean of the Graduate School of Cornell Universit}'. An Associate Dean, who is also 
an Assistant Dean of the Graduate School of Cornell University, is the Secretary of 
the Executive Committee. 

Faculty Advisory Committee 

The Faculty^ Advisory Committee is the primary body representing the views of the 
Facult\^ of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. The Committee advi^s the 
Dean and the Executive Committee on the impact of educational and policy 
matters under their consideration and recommends changes in educational acti\1- 
ties, procedures, and policy of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. 

The Faculty Advisory Committee is composed of one elected faculty^ represent- 
ative of each Field of the Medical College Division and of each Unit of the Sloan- 
Kettering Division, and one elected student representative from each Division. The 
Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson of the Committee are elected by its member- 
ship. Non-voting members are the Dean and Associate Deans, the Provost for 
Medical Affairs of Cornell Universits , and the Director and Associate Director of the 
Sloan-Kettering Division. 

Special Programs 

Medical Scientist Training Programs (M.D.-Ph.D.) 

These programs are designed to expose a student to both medical and graduate 
disciplines during a six-year course of study. The combination of skills in basic 
research and experience in a clinical setting will prepare graduates from this 
program to pursue investigative careers in the biomedical sciences or in clinical 
medicine. The student spends the first two years as a medical student stud) ing the 
basic medical sciences and attending regular graduate seminars. The summer 
months are spent in the laboraton learning experimental techniques and doing 
research. The third, fourth, and fifth years of the student's program are spent as a 



3 



full-time graduate student and are devoted mainly to laboratory research and 
writing the thesis. The sixth year of the program is devoted to clinical clerkships. 
This six-year program represents the minimum time required to satisfy residence 
requirements of both the M.D. and Ph.D. degrees at Cornell University. Successful 
applicants to the program will become M.D. -Ph.D. Fellows and will receive a full 
tuition scholarship and a stipend covering living expenses for the six-year period. 

Separate Medical Scientist Training Programs are offered by the Medical 
College and Sloan-Kettering Divisions: 

M.D.-Ph.D. Program at the Medical College Division: Preclinical and clinical 
training are provided by the faculty of Cornell University Medical College, while 
graduate education in research is offered by the faculty of the Medical College Divi- 
sion of the Cornell Universit\^ Graduate School of Medical Sciences. 
M.D.-Ph.D. Program at the Sloan-Kettering Division: This program is spon- 
sored collectively by the Sloan-Kettering Division and Cornell University Medical 
College. The program requirements include the research-based Sloan-Kettering 
Division Ph.D. curriculum and the Cornell University Medical College curriculum. 
For application to these programs, see p. 69. 

Ph.D.-M.D. Program 

Students enrolled in the Graduate School of Medical Sciences may be eligible for 
admission into the Ph.D.-M.D. Program, jointly sponsored by the Medical College 
and the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. This program is designed for those 
graduate students who find that their teaching and research goals require the acqui- 
sition of the M.D. degree in addition to the Ph.D. degree. The program is not 
designed as an alternate path for students who have the M.D. degree as their 
priniar) goal, but who have not been accepted by a medical school. Those who 
know, at the time of application to Cornell, that they want to pursue a course of 
stud\ leading to both degrees should apply to one of the M.D.-Ph.D. programs 
described above. 

See p. 69 for application and graduation requirements of the Ph.D.-M.D. 
program. 



4 



Faculty and Research 
Activities 



5 




6 



Medical College Division 



Field of Biochemistry 

Faculty 



John P. Blass 
Adclc L. Boskcy 
Esther M. Brcslow 
Arthur J . L. Cooper 
Gordon F. Fairclough 
Jcrald D. Gass 
Helena Gilder 
Jack Goldstein 
Owen W. Griffith 
Da\id P. Hajjar 
Rudy H. Haschemeyer 
Bernard L. Horecker 
Chun-Yen Lai 
Raymond E. Lockard 



Alton Meister 

Ursula Muller-Eberhard 

Abraham Noxogrodsk)' 

Aaron S. Posner 

Julian R. Rachele (Emeritus) 

Albert L. Rubin 

Edward T. Schubert 

Richard L. Soffer 

Kurt H. Sten/.el 

Suresh S. Tate 

Sidney Udenfriend 

Daniel Wellner 

Kenneth R. Woods 

Da\'id Zakim 



Research Activities * 

Members of the field of Biochemistr\' are engaged in research spanning a wide spec- 
trum of scientific areas. Thus, the research in Dr. Meistefs laboratory is concerned 
with the study of enzy mes, especially those involved in amino acid, peptide, and 
protein metabolism. It involves the isolation of enzy mes, the determination of their 
structure and properties, and the use of techniques such as isolation of mRNA and 
cDNA. The research is basic in nature, but significant relationships between this 
research and human disease have been disco\ered and are also being explored. 
Current work involves the metabolism and function of glutathione, including the 
relationships of this tripeptide to transport, metabolism, radiation, and 
chemotherapy. 

Dr Boskey^'s research is concerned with elucidating the factors controlling 
physiologic and dystrophic calcification. Hydroxyapatite formation and growth are 
studied in solution, in collagen gels, and in animal ti.ssues. Recent studies ha\e 
concentrated on the mechanism of action of proteoglycans (a mineralization inhib- 
itor) and acidic phospholipids (promoters of mineralization ). Studies are also in 
progress on the role of \ itamin D metabolites in bone lipid metabolism. 

Dr. Breslow is concerned with understanding, in a quantitative sense, the 
forces that determine the .specificity of protein-protein interactions. She has been 
studying the interactions of the pituitar\ peptide hormones, oxytocin and vaso- 
pressin, with their storage protein, neurophysin. These studies are directed 
towards elucidating the binding .site regions of the hormones and of the protein 



7 



and at quantitating the energies of different components of the interaction. A 
second research project concerns the mechanism by which proteins are degraded 
intraceiluiarly during normal protein turnover. The aims of these studies are to 
understand the precise role of ubiquitin, a small protein known to be involved in 
this process, and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the selection of proteins 
for degradation. 

Dt\ Cooper^s laboratory^ is working in the area of a-keto acid biochemistry and 
pyridoxal phosphate enz\ mes. Another area of active research is the metabolism of 
amino acids and ammonia in the brain. For this purpose, molecules labeled with 
short-lived radioisotopes are synthesized and their distribution in brain is analyzed 
by positron emission tomography. Cerebral energy metabolism, with particular 
emphasis on the malate-aspartate shuttle, and its disruption in various disease states 
are also being investigated. 

/>. Goldstein is studying the structure and function of erythrocyte surface anti- 
gens and is working on enzy matic methods for the removal of immuno-dominant 
sugars responsible for blood group A and B activity. 

Dr. Griffith's research involves the design, synthesis and utilization in vivo of 
enzvTOe-selective inhibitors and substrates. These compounds are used both to eval- 
uate and to control the metabolite flux through various pathways in intact animals. 
Recent studies have focused on the manipulation of glutathione and cysteine metab- 
olism. Enz\ me-selective inhibitors were developed that allow both glutathione 
bios\ nthesis and utilization to be blocked; techniques allowing extracellular 
cv stine formation to be controlled were also developed. The inhibitors were 
shown to be useful in treating animal trypanosomiasis, enhancing oxidative killing 
of tumor cells, and preventing the formation of leukotriene C. New inhibitors are 
now being developed to allow in invo control of carnitine metabolism. Applica- 
tions of these compounds include the investigation and therapy of inherited 
diseases of lipid metabolism and diabetes. 

Studies are currently in progress in Dr. Hajjafs laboratory to investigate the 
interaction of endothelial cells which line blood vessels with the underlying 
smooth muscle cells in an attempt to define the role of the endothelium in the 
process of cholesterol accumulation during arteriosclerosis. In addition, the role of 
herpes viruses as an etiological agent in the pathogenesis of lipid accumulation and 
arteriosclerosis is under investigation by studying the virus' effects on intracellular 
cholesterol metabolism and lipoprotein binding and metabolism. 

Research in Dr. Haschemeyefs laboratory concentrates on the development of 
phy sical methods to study molecular structure and interactions, and on the applica- 
tion of such methods to ascertain structure-fimction relationships in selected 
systems. Current emphasis is directed toward computer modeling of biological 
flow methods and heterogeneous-pha.se reactions and on immuno-electron micros- 
copy of luinian serum lipoproteins. 

Dr //orcck'cr is working on the isolation and characterization of peptides from 
the tlnnnis gland and exaluation of their possible function as hormones that regu- 
late cellular iinnuinity I he cloning of the genes for thymosin fU and for prothy- 
iiiosin (V is a major c urrent objective. Another project concerns the role of intracel- 
lular proteinases in the regulation of cellular processes, including their function in 
the turnover of intracellular proteins and in the cy totoxic effects of human 
lymphocytes. 



8 



Dr. Lafs research is concerned with the structure and function ot cholera 
toxin. Work from his laboratory has shown that subunit Al of cholera toxin is fully 
responsible for the toxin's ability to stimulate adenylate cyclase in mammalian cells. 
Isolated subunit Al was also shown to catalyse an efficient transfer of the ADF- 
ribose moiety^ from NAD to a membrane protein. In another project, evidence has 
been obtained for a two-domain structure of the angiotensin converting enzyme: 
the hydrophobic carboxy-terminal portion of the enzy me is anchored to the cell 
membrane and the amino-terminal half, with the active site, is exposed to the 
blood circulation. Structural analyses indicate that the lung and testis enzymes may 
be the products of two distinct genes, and experiments are in progress to explain 
the close similarities between the two enzymes. 

Dr. Lockards research is directed towards understanding cytoplasmic control 
of eukaryotic gene expression. He is investigating the role of messenger RNA 
conformation in translational control and mRNA turnover. He is also studying the 
primary structure of rabbit 18S ribosomal RNA and its topography within the 40S 
subunit. 

Dr. Muller-Eherhard is investigating the mechanisms of transport of iron proto- 
porphyrin IX and its metabolic precursors by proteins in the blood stream as well 
as within hepatocytes. She is studying the exchange of porphyrins between 
proteins purified from serum and from hepatocytes; developing methods which 
delineate the function of these proteins in the delivery of porphyrins to hepato- 
cytes and their intracellular distribution; and assessing the interaction of these 
proteins with artificial and biological membranes to learn how they may facilitate 
ligand transport across cellular and intracellular barriers. 

Dr. Posner is studying bone mineral stmcture and properties with emphasis on 
the elucidation of the biochemical processes of tissue mineralization. Techniques 
such as x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and infrared absorption spectropho- 
tometry ar^e used in this project. The role in the mineralization process of the 
organic constituents of bone, such as collagen and proteoglycans, is of prime 
interest. 

The main objective of Dr. Soffer^s research is to characterize the physical, 
chemical, and biochemical properties of angiotensin II receptor which has been 
purified to a nearly homogeneous state from rabbit hepatic membranes. 

Dr. Stenzel and Dr. Novogrodsky are interested in determining molecular 
mechanisms involved in ly mphocyte activation. They are utilizing a model system of 
lymphocyte stimulation induced by the mitogenic oxidizing agents, sodium perio- 
date and galactose oxidase. They are studying structural and functional alterations 
in cells rendered stimulatory^ by the oxidizing mitogens. These investigations 
include an analysis of the membrane sites oxidized and the possible cross-linked 
structures formed. Attempts are made to determine the requirements for stimula- 
tory activity by reconstructions of stimulatory structures using hybridization and 
fusion techniques. They are also investigating structural and functional alterations 
in cells responding to aldehyde-modified stimulatory cells and cell fractions, and 
their requirements for soluble growth factors. Cell surface structures involved in 
accessory cell activity are being determined and biochemical events mediated by 
accessory cells or interleukin 1 are under study. A practical application of this work 
is a study to determine anti-tumor properties of ly mphoid cells activated with the 
oxidizing mitogens. 



9 



Current interest in Dr. Tate's laborator\^ is focused on the isolation, characteri- 
zation, and ultrastructural localization of enz)Tnes responsible for the formation of 
modified N- and C-terminal residues of peptide hormones in the hypothalamus and 
the pituitan^ gland. Synthetic peptide substrates are being used to identify^ and 
isolate an enzyme from bo\ine pituitary glands which is responsible for the forma- 
tion of the C-terminal amide group of several hormones. In another project, three 
brush-border enzymes are being used as model systems to gain an understanding of 
the processes involved in the assembly of the highly specialized microvillus 
membranes. The enzyines under study are 7-glutamyl transpeptidase, a dipeptidase, 
and aminopeptidase M. Current work includes a study of structure-function rela- 
tions in these enzymes, their biogenesis, post-translational processing and sorting, 
and achievement of their final intracellular location. 

Research in Dr. Wellness laboratory is concerned with the structure and func- 
tion of enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism, such as L-amino acid oxidase 
and threonine deaminase. Amino acid analyses of urine and blood of patients with 
inherited and acquired defects in amino acid metabolism are carried out as part of 
an effort to improve the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. 

Recent Publications 

Blass, J. P. (with Sheu, K.-F. R, and Lai, J. C. K.). Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase in 
brain: Activity, properties, and subcellular localization. J. Neurochem. 40:1366-1372, 1983. 

Blass, J. P. (with Sheu, K.-F. R.. and Lai, J. C. K.), Properties and regional distribution of pyruvate dehy- 
drogenase kinase in rat brain. J. Neurochem. 42:230-236, 1984. 

Boskey, A. L (with Chen, C-C, and Rosenberg, L. C), The inhibitory effect of cartilage proteoglycans on 
hydroxyapatite growth. Calcif. Tissue Int. 36:285-290, 1984. 

Boskey, A. L. (with Wians, F. H. Jr., and Hauschka, P. V.), The effect of osteocalcin on in vitro lipid- 

induced hydroxyapatite formation and seeded hvdrox\'apatite growth. Calcif. Tissue Int. 37:57- 
62, 1985. 

Brcslow . E. ( w ith Sardana, V. ), Proton magnetic resonance and binding studies of proteolytically modi- 
fied neurophysins J. Biol. Chem. 259:3669-3679, 1984. 

Breslow, H. (with VtTiittaker, B., Allewell, N. M., and Carlson. J.), Enthalpies of ligand binding to bovine 
neurophysins. Biochemistry 24:2782-2789, 1985. 

Cooper, A. J. L. (with Fitzpatrick, S. M., Ginos, Z.. Kaufman. C. and Dowd. P.). Inhibition of glutamate- 
aspartate tran.saminase by /3-methylene-DL-aspartate. Biochem. Pharmacol. 32:6~'9-689, 1983- 

( ooper. A J L. (with Fitzpatrick, S. M., and Dufiy, T. E.), Use of )3-methylene-DL-aspartate to assess the 
role of aspartate aminotransferase in cerebral oxidative metabolism. J. Neurochem. 41:1370- 
1383, 1983. 

(loldstein, J . Biochemical manipulation nt blood groups. In: (Clinics in Immunology and Allerg>. van 
Rood. J. .1 . dc Vreis. R R. P , cds . NX B. Saunders. London. Vol. 4, No. 3, 1984. 

(loldstein, J . ( with Suyama, K.. and drccn, S. ), Antitumor activity of normal human globulin: effect on 
murine and human er>ihrokukemic cells. Expl. Cell Biol. 53 93-99, 1985. 

GrifTilh, (). \X . Cysteinesulfmate metabolism: Altered partitioning between transamination and 

decarboxylation following administration of /3-methylene-DL-aspartate. J. Biol. Chem. 258: 1591 - 
1598, 1983 

Najjar. I) P (with Fabricant, C C , and labritant, I ). Altered cholestervl ester cycle is a.s.sociated with 
lipid accumulation in herpesvirus infected arterial smooth muscle cells ) Biol Chem. 260:6124- 
612H, 1985 



10 



Hajjar, D. P. (with Etingin, O. R. ), Nifedipine increases cholesteryl ester hydrolytic activity in lipid laden 
rabbit arterial smooth muscle cells: a possible mechanism for its atherogenic effect. J. Clin 
Invest. 75:1554-1558. 1985. 

Haschemeyer, R. H. (with Todd, G. P.) Generalized finite element solution to one-dimensional flux prob- 
lems. Biophysical Chcm. 17:321-336, 1983- 

Haschemeyer, R. H. (with Wall, J., Hainfeld, J., and Mossesson, M. W.), Analysis of human fibrinogen by 
scanning transmission electron microscopy, Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 408: 164-1 "^9, 1983. 

Horecker, B. L. (with Pontremoli, S., Melloni, E., Salamino, P., Sparatore, B., and Michetti, M. ), C>tosolic 
Ca'^^-dependent neutral proteinases from rabbit liver: Activation of the proenzymes by Ca"* and 
substrate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81:53-56, 1984. 

Horecker, B. L. (with Wodnar-Filipowicz, A., Gubler, U., Furuichi, Y., Richardson, M., Nowoswait, E. P., 
and Poonian, M. S. ), Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for rat spleen thymosin B4. Proc. 
Natl. Acad. Sci. U.SA. 81:2295-2297, 1984. 

Lai, C-Y. (with Xia, Q-C, and Salotra, P.), Location and amino acid sequence around the ADP- 

ribosvlation site in the cholera toxin subunit Ai. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1 16:341-348, 
1983'. 

Lai, C-Y. (with Iwata, K., Blacher, R., and Soffer, R. L. ), Rabbit pulmonary angiotensin-converting enzyme: 
The NH:-terminal fragment with enz)Tnatic activity and its formation from the native enzyme by 
NH4OH treatment. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 227:188-201, 1983- 

Lockard, R. E. (with Connaughton, J. F., Rairkar, A., and Kumar, A.), Primary structure of rabbit 18S ribo- 
somal RNA determined by direct RNA sequence analysis. Nucleic Acids Research 12:4731-4745, 
1984. 

Lockard, R. E. (with Garrett-Wheeler, E., and Kumar, A.), Mapping psoralen cross-linked nucleotides in 
RNA. Nucleic Acids Research 12:3405-3423, 1984. 

Meister, A. (with Anderson, M. E.), Glutathione. Ann. Rev. of Biochem. 52:71 1-760, 1983- 

Meister, A., Selective modification of glutathione metabolism. Science 220:471-477, 1983 

Muller-Eberhard, U. (with Cannon, J. B., Kuo, F-S., Pasternack, R. F., and Wong, N. M.), Kinetics of the 
interaction of hemin liposomes with heme binding proteins. Biochemistry 23:3715-3721, 1984. 

Muller-Eberhard, U. (with Vincent, S. H.), Concepts of heme distribution within hepatocytes (Commen- 
tary). 'Siochem Pharmacol 34(6):719-725, 1985. 

Novogrodsky, A. (with Stenzel, K. H., Arnold, A., and Rubin, A. L), Mitogenic properties of neuramini- 
dase and galactose oxidase treated Kmphoblastoid cells and plasma membranes for peripheral 
blood IvTnphojytes. J. Immunol. 133 2569-2576, 1984. 

Novogrodsky, A. (with Stenzel, K. H., Arnold, A., Lipkowitz, S., Rubin, A. L, and Suthanthiran, M.), 

Human B hmphoblastoid cell lines provide an interleukin 1-like signal for mitogen-treated T 
lymphoc\tes via direct cell contact. J. Immunol. 134:38^6-3883, 1985. 

Posner, A. S. (with McGann, T. C. A., Kearney, R. D., Buchheim, W., Betts, F., and Blumenthal, N. C. ), 
Amorphous calcium phosphate in casein micelles of bovine milk. Calcif. Tis. Int. 35:821-823. 
1983. 

Posner, A. S. (with ITiompson, D. D., Laughlin, W. S., and Blumenthal, N. C. ), Comparison of bt)ne 
apatite in osteoporotic and normal eskimos. Calcif l is. Int. 35:392-393, 1983 

Soffer. R. L. (with Sen, L, and Bull, H. G.), Isolation of an angiotensin ll-binding protein from liver. Proc. 
Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81:1679-1683, 1984. 

Stenzel, K. H. (with Suthanthiran, M., Williams, P. S., Solomon, S. D., and Rubin. A. L. ), Induction of cvto- 
Ivtic activity by anti-Ti monoclonal antibody: Activation of alloimmune memorv cells and natural 
killer cells from normal and immunodeficient individuals. J. C.lin. Invest. 74:2263-22^1. 1984. 

Stenzel, K. H. (with Lipkowitz, S., Greene, W. C. Rubin. A. L., and Novogrodsky, A.), Expression of recep- 
tors for interleukin-2: Role in the commitment of T Ivmphocvtes to proliferate J Immunol. 
132:31-41, 1984. 



Tate, S. S. (with Nash, B. ). In Vitro translation and processing of rat kidney 7-glutamyl transpeptidase. J. 
Biol. Chem. 259:678-685, 1984. 



Tate, S. S. (with Husain, I., and Khan, S. A. ), COOH-Terminal a-amidation of peptides: properties of the 
bovine pituitary enzymes. Eur. J. Biochem. (in press). 

Wellner, D. (with Stoner, E., Starkman, H., Wellner, V. P., Sassa, S., Rifkind, A. B., Grenier, A., Steinherz, P. 
G., Meister, A., New, M. I., and Levine, L. S.), Biochemical studies of a patient with hereditary 
hepatorenal t\Tosinemia: Evidence of glutathione deficiency. Pediatr. Res. 18:1332-1336, 1984. 



Research Activities 

Research is conducted in a broad range of fields which include the most exciting 
arca.s of genetics and cell, developmental and molecular biology. Excellent facilities 
and the most current methodologies are available. 

The aim of />. Bachvarova's research is to understand the control of gene 
expression during meiotic maturation and early development of mammalian 
embryos. Itie role of maternal factors in the egg, and the differential expression 
and processing of mRNA's in the developing oocyte and embryo are being investi- 
gated. I>r. Backus laboratory is concerned with the development of the heart. 
Specific interests are the differential expression of myosin heavy chains in the devel- 
oping myocardium, and the mechanisms by which myocardial heterogeneity are 
generated. Monoclonal antibody and recombinant DNA technologies provide the 
basis for these studies of cardiac myogenesis in rivo and /// liiro. Processes in both 
the male and female reproductive systems which contribute to conception are the 
focus of research in Or Bcdfonfs laboratorv'. Hie cellular events undergone by 



Field of Cell Biology and Genetics 

Faculty 



Fred Allen 

Rosemary Bachvarova 
David M. Bader 
Arthur Bank 
J. Michael Bedford 
Celso Bianco 
Adele L. Boskey 
Peter G. Bullough 
Raju S. Chaganti 
Moses V. Chao 
Donald A. Fischman 
James L. German 111 
Marvin Gershengorn 
Lloyd H. Graf 
Barbara H. Hosein 



Fric Jaffe 

Ralph L. Nachman 



Joel D. Pardee 
David M. Phillips 
Enrique M. Rabellino 
Joan Rankin Shapiro 
Michael Risley 
Toby C. Rodman 
Enrique Rodriguez-Boulan 
Brij B. Saxena 
Peter Sherline 
Selma Silagi 
Marcello Siniscalco 
Julio L. Sirlin 
Paul Szabo 
Paula Traktman 
Doris A. Wall 
Babette B. Weksler 
David Zakim 



12 



spermatozoa during their maturation in the epididymis are under study; in the 
female, research is directed toward understanding sperm capacitation, sperm trans- 
port to the site of fertilization, and to the mechanism of fertilization. 

The research in Dr. Bullough s laboratorx' concerns bone morpholog)', w ith a 
special interest in cartilage structure and joint geometry'. />. Chagantfs laboratory 
is studying the role of hereditary' factors in the etiology' of human cancer. Molec- 
ular, cytogenetic and epidemiologic approaches are being taken. Two main foci are 
the isolation and characterization of recessively inherited genes which appear to 
create a predisposition to chromosome breakage, and the study of the position and 
activation of cellular oncogenes. Dr. Cbao'^ research interests focus on gene 
expression and regulation in mammalian cells. Cell surface molecules which regu- 
late and change the pattern of transcription are under study. Molecular genetic 
techniques are being applied to such molecules as the human nerve growth factor 
receptor and specific human carcinoma and melanoma surface antigens. 

Dr. Fischman's research focuses on the cell and molecular biology of sarco- 
mere assembly in developing skeletal and cardiac muscle. Monoclonal antibody and 
recombinant DNA technologies, as well as electron microscopy and fluorescence 
energy transfer, are being applied to the study of post-translation steps involved in 
myofibrillogenesis. Several aspects of human genetics are under study in Dr. 
German's laboratory, including disturbances of malformation, disturbances of 
sexual development, and human cancer. Somatic cell genetic and cytogenetic 
approaches are being used. The focus of Dr. Gerschengom's laboratory is the under- 
standing of hormonal regulation of cellular secretion. In particular, the stimulation 
of the anterior pituitary gland's secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone and 
prolactin by thyrotropin-releasing hormone is under study. Research is no'^ 
centered on the apparent importance of calcium in this system, and on phosphoin- 
ositides, which are implicated in cellular calcium homeostasis. 

Dr.Jciffe's interest is in the response of endothelial cells to exogenous stimuli; 
current research includes study of the interaction of thrombin with endothelial cell 
surface proteins and the resultant induction of prostaglandin and thrombospondin 
production. Interactions of endothelial cells and white blood cells is also under 
study. In Dr. Grafs laboratory, a mouse melanoma culture system is being used to 
study the regulated expression of endogenous and transfected genes. Gene transfer 
methodology is also being used to isolate and study genes encoding tumor-specific 
cell surface antigens. 

The focus of work in Dr. Nachman's laboratory is the biochemistry of platelet 
membranes and the macromolecular assembly of adhesive proteins on various cell 
surfaces and in the extracellular matrix. The structure and fimction of blood \ essel 
walls is also under study. Dr. Pardee's research is concerned with the regulation of 
the actin cytoskeleton by actin-binding proteins. Two such regulatory proteins, 
severin and an actin filament bundling factor, have been isolated and are being 
analyzed for their roles in cell migration, cell-substrate adhesion and neoplastic 
transformation. The laboratory of />: Risky employs cell and organ culture tech- 
niques to elucidate the cellular and molecular parameters important for the regula- 
tion of spermatogenesis. Tissue culture and cytogenetic methods are being used to 
investigate the chemical induction of heritable chromosome aberrations. 

Dr. Rodriguez-Boulan s main interest is an understanding of the cellular and 
molecular mechanisms that regulate the traffic and targeting of membrane proteins 



13 



in eucan^otic cells, with an emphasis on the polarized distribution of apical and 
basolateral plasma membrane proteins in epithelial cells. Some specific topics are 
the determination of factors which aid in establishing polarity and the sorting 
signals which target specific proteins to their destinations. Dr. Sherline's research is 
directed towards understanding the role of microtuble associated proteins (MAP) 
in the regulation of microtubule assembly and function. With a particular interest 
in the role of MAP's in the centrosome, immunological techniques are being used 
to study MAP distribution, metabolism and function during the cell cycle and in 
response to hormones and growth factors. 

The main focus of Dr. Traktmari's research is a molecular genetic analysis of 
vaccinia virus. Of particular interest are the temporal regulation of gene expression 
and the coordination of viral DNA replication. A variety of molecular, genetic and 
biochemical techniques are being employed to identify and characterize viral func- 
tions involved in DNA replication and the maintenance of DNA conformation. Dr. 
WalPs laboratory conducts research in membrane biology, with an emphasis on 
receptor-mediated endocytosis and an analysis of intracellular membrane systems. 
The Xenopus oocyte is being used as a model cell to study the pathways of ligands 
and receptors during endocytosis, and the establishment and maintenance of 
distinct membrane systems during oogenesis and early embryonic development. 



Recent Publications 

Allen. F. H , Jr. (with Mayr, W. R.. and Lee, C. L), RMNE (Random Men not Excluded) calculations for 
two-locus system such as HLA. Chapter 24. In: Inclusion Probabilities in Parentage Testing. R. H 
Walker, ed. American Association of Blood Banks, pp. 297-304, 1983. 

Allen, F. H , Jr., Paternitv' case analysis. Chapter 34 in Inclusion Probabilities in Parentage Testing. R. H. 
Walker, ed., pp. 489-490, 1983- 

Bachvarova, R. (with DeLeon, V., and Johnson, A. ), Half-lives and relative amounts of stored and poly- 
somal ribosomes and poly (A) tRNA in mouse oocytes. Devel. Biol. 98:400-408, 1983- 

Bachvarova, R. (with Moy, K.), Autoradiographic studies on the distribution of labeled maternal RNA in 
early mouse embryos. J. Exp. Zool. In press. 

Bader, D. (with Gonzalez-Sanchez, A.), Immunochemical analysis of myosin heavy chains in the devel- 
oping chicken heart. Develop. Biol. 1 03: 1 5 1 - 1 58, 1 983. 

Bank, A.. The world of new genetics. In: Human Molecular Genetics. Ramirez, F., ed., Marcel Dekker, 
1984. 

Bank. A. (with Mears, J. G.), The genetic defects in the thalassemias. In: Current Topics in Hematology, 
Piomelli, S., ed. Alan R. Liss, ed., 1984. 

Bedford, J. .M. (with Witkin, S. S. ), Influence of complement depletion on sperm function in the female 
rabbit. J. Reproduct. Fertil. 69:523-528, 1983- 

Bedford, J. M. (with Rodger, J. C., and Breed. W. (i. ), WTiy so many mammalian spermatozoa— a clue 
from marsupials Froc. Roy. Soc, B. 221:221-233, 1984. 

Bianco, I ibrin, fibronectin and macrophages. In: Molecular liiolog\ of Fibrinogen and Fibrin, M. W. 
Mosesson *c R. F. Doolitile, eds. Ann. N\ Acad. Sci. 408:602-609, 1983. 

Bianco, C:. (with Godfrey. H. P, Channabasappa, V. A., and Wolstencroff, R. A.), Localization of macro- 
phage (agglutination factor activity) to the gelatin binding domain of fibronectin. J. Immunol. 
I 33: 1 41^ 1423, 1984 

lioskcy. A L. (with Timchak, I). M., and Vigorita, V. ), Lipid involvement in non osseous tissue repair. 
Proc. Soc. Exp Biol Med. 174 59 64, 1983. 



14 



Boskey, A. L. (with Timchak, D. M. ), Phospholipid changes in the bones of the Vitamin D deficient, phos- 
phate deficient, immature rats. Metabolic Bone Dis. & Related Res. 5:81 84, 1984. 

BuUough, P. G. (with Vigorita, V. J.), In: An Atlas of Orthopaedic Pathology, (iower Medical Piibl , Ltd , 
London, 1984. Univ. Park Press, Baltimore, Ml), 1984. 

Bullough, P. G. (with Boskey, A. L, and Lewinson, D. ), The effects of trifluoroperazine on calcifying 
tissues in the immature rat. Proc. Soc. Exp. Bio. & Med. 176:154-163, 1984. 

Chaganti, R. S. K., Significance of chromosome change to hematopoietic neoplasms. Blood 62:515-525, 
1983. 

Chaganti, R. S. K. (with Schneider, N. R., Chaganti, S. R.. and Cierman, J.), Familial predisposition to 
cancer and age at onset of disease in randomly selected cancer patients. Am. J Hum. Genet. 
35:454-467, 1983- 

Chao, M. V. (with Mellon, P., Charney, P., Maniatis, T., and Axel, R. ), The regulated expression of globin 
genes in mouse erythroleukemia cells. Cell 32:483-493, 1983- 

Chao, M. V. (with Mellon, P., Wold, B., Maniatis, T, and Axel, R.), Regulation of globin genes introduced 
into murine erythroleukemic cells. In: Cell Fusion: Gene Transfer and Transformation, Vol. 14, 
Beers, R. and Bassett, W., eds. Raven Press, N.Y. pp. 89-100, 1984. 

Fischman, D. A. (with Danto, S. L), Immunochemical analysis of intermediate filaments in embryonic 
heart cells with monoclonal antibodies to desmin. J. Cell Biol. 98:2179-2191, 1984. 

Fischman, D. A. (with Dennis, J. E., Shimizu, T, and Reinach, F. C), Localization of C-protein isoforms in 
chicken skeletal muscles: Ultrastructural detection using monoclonal antibodies. J. Cell Biol. 
98:1514-1522, 1984. 

German, J., editor. Chromosome Mutation and Neoplasia. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, 1983- 

German, J., The embryonic stress hypothesis of teratogenesis. Am. J. Med. 76:293-301, 1984. 

Gershengorn, M. C. (with Kolesnick, R. N. ), Arachidonic acid inhibits thyrotropin-releasing hormone- 
induced elevation of cytoplasmic free calcium in GH3 pituitary cells. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 707-713, 
1985. 

Gershengorn, M. C. (with Kolesnick, R. N. ). Direct evidence that burst but not sustained secretion of 
prolactin stimulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone is dependent on elevation of cytoplasmic 
calcium. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 5217-5220, 1985. 

Graf, L. H. (with Albino, D. P., Kantor, R. R. S., McLean, W. J., Silagi, S., and Old, L. J.), DNA-mediated 
transfer of human melanoma cell surface glycoprotein gpl30: Identification of transfectanis by 
erythrocyte rosetting. Molec. & Cell Biol., 5, 692-97, 1985. 

Graf, L. H., Jr. (with Kaplan, P., and Silagi, S.), Efficient DNA-mediated transfer of selectable genes and 
unselected sequences into differentiated and undifferentiated mouse melanoma cells. Som. Cell 
& Mol Gen. 10:139-151, 1984. 

Hosein, B. (with Palmer, G.), The kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of reduced spinach ferredoxin 
by molecular oxygen and its reduced products. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 723 383-390, 
1983. 

Jaffe, E. A. (with Steinberg, S. F., and Bilezikian, J. P.), Endothelial cells contain beta adrenergic recep- 
tors. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol. 325:310-313, 1984. 

Jaffe, E. A. (with Ruggiero,J. T., and Falcone, D. J.), Monocytes s-ynthesize and secrete thrombospondin. 
Blood 65:79-84, 1985. 

Nachman, R. L. (with Policy, M. J.), Human platelet activation bv C3a and C3a des arg. J. Exp. Med. 
158:683-615, 1983. 

Nachman, R. L. (with Leung, L. L. K., Kloczewiak, M., and Hawiger, J.), Complex formation of platelet 
membrane givcoprotein lib and Ilia with fibrinogen D domain. J. Biol. Chem. 259:8584-8588, 
1984. 

Phillips, D. M. (with Kalay. D. ), Observation on mechanisms of flagellar motilirv deduced from back- 
wards swimming bull sperm. J. Exp. Zool. 231 109-1 16, 1984. 

Phillips, D. M.. Problems in the analysis of mammalian fertilization. In: Ultrastnicture of Reproduction 
and Early Development, Van Berkom and Motta. eds. pp. 166, 1984. 



15 



Rabellino, F. M. (with Levene, R. B., Nachman, R. L, and Leung, L. L K ), Human megakaryocytes III. 
Characterization in myeloproliferative disorders. Blood 63:615-622, 1984. 

Rabellino, E., Biology- of human megakary otes: Recent developments. In: Progress in Hemostasis and 
Thrombosis. Spaet, T., ed., Grune and Stratton, New York, 1984 (vol. 7). In press. 

Risley, M. S., Spermatogenic cell differentiation in vitro. Gamete Research 4:331-346, 1983- 

Rodman, T. C. (with Pruslin, F. H.), Proteins of demembraned protamine-depleted mouse sperm. 

Homology- with proteins of somatic ceil nuclear envelope/matrix. Exp. Cell Res. 144:1 15-126, 
1983. 

Rodman, T. C. (with Pruslin, F. H., Chiorazzi, N., Michelis, M. A., and Winston, R.), pl5, A nuclear- 
associated protein of human sperm. Identification of four variants and their occurrence in normal 
and abnormal seminal cells. Gamete Res. 8:129-147, 1983. 

Rodriguez-Boulan, E. (with Paskiet, K., and Sabatini, D. D.), Assembly of enveloped viruses in Madin- 

Darby canine kidney cells: Polarized budding from single attached cells and from clusters of cells 
in suspension. J. Cell Biol. 96:866-874, 1983. 

Rodriguez-Boulan, E., Polarized assembly of enveloped RNA viruses from cultured epithelial cells. In: 

Methods in Enzymology, Fleischer, S. and Fleischer, B., eds. Academic Press, New York, pp. 486- 
500, 1983. 

Rubinstein, P. (with Walker, M., Mollen, N., Laubenstein, L., and Friedman-Kien, A.), Immunogenetic 
findings in patients with epidemic Kaposi's Sarcoma. In: The Acquired Immune Deficiency 
Syndrome and Infections of Homosexual Men. Armstrong, D. and Ma, P., eds.. Chapter 25, York 
Medical Books., U.S.A., N.Y., pp. 362-380, 1983. 

Rubinstein, P. (with Rothman, W. M., and Friedman-Kien, A.), Immunologic and immunogenetic find- 
ings in patients with epidemic Kaposi's Sarcoma. Antibiot. Chemother. 32:87-98, 1984. 

Saxena, B. B. (with Dattatreyamurry, B., and Rathnam, P.), Isolation of the luteinizing hormone- 
chorionic gonadotropin receptor in high yield from bovine corpora lutea. J. Biol. Chem. 
258:3140-3158. 1983- 

Saxena, B. B. (with Rathnam, P.), A "sandwich" solid-phase enzyme immuno assay for lutropin in urine. ' 
Clin. Chem. 30:665, 1984. 

Shapiro, J. R. (with Shapiro, W. R. ), (Jonal tumor cell heterogeneity. In: Progressive Experimental Brain 
Tumor Research, M. L. Rosenblum and C. B. Wilson, eds. Vol. 27:49-66, Karger, Basel, Switzer- 
land, 1984. 

Shapiro, J. R. (with Pu, P.-Y., and Shapiro, W. R.), Resistant cells in human gliomas. In: Human Tumor 
Cloning, Salmon, S. E., and Trent, J. M., eds. Grune & Stratton, Orlando, 1984. In Press. 

Silagi, S. (with Graf, L. H, Jr., and Kaplan, P.) , Mediated transfer of selectable genes and unselected 

sequences into differentiated and undifferentiated mouse melanoma clones. Som. Cell & Molec. 
Gen. 10:139-151, 1984. 

Silagi, S. (with Graf, 1.. H , Jr. ), 5-Azac\tidine induces melanin and plasminogen activator in amelanotic 
cells in culture. Proc. Xllth IntM Pigment Cell Conf p. 206. 1983. 

Siniscalco, M., Molecular mapping of the human genome: A crossroad between basic and applied 

research. Banbury Report '14: Recombinant DNA Application to Human Disease, (.old Spring 
laboratory, 1983. 

Siniscalco, M. (S/.abo, P., and Grzeschik, K. H.), A human autosomal phosphoglycerate kina.se locus maps 
near the HI A cluster. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 81:3167-3169, 1984. 

Iraktiiian, i' (with Sridhar, P., Gondii, R C, and Roberts, B. E. ), Transcriptional mapping of the DNA 
polymerase gene of vaccinia virus. J. Virology 49:125-131, 1984. 

Wall, D. A (with Townsend, R. R., Hubbard, A. 1.., and l.ee, Y. C. ), Rapid release of galactose terminated 
ligands after endocvlosis by he patic parenchymal cells: evidence for a role of carbohydrate struc- 
ture in the release of internali/ed ligand from receptor. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 81:466 1984 

\Xall, I) A (with Maack, 1. ). I^ndocytic uptake, tran.sport. anti catabolisni of proteins by epithelial cells. 
Amer.J Physiol 24K:(;i 2 (;2(), 1985. 

/akim, D (with Hochman, \.. and Kenney, W C. ), Evidence for an acti\e site arginine in UDP- 
gUic ur()nyltran.sfera.se J Biol ( hem 258:6430-6434, 1983. 



16 



Zakim, D. (with Hochman, Y. ), Studies of the catahiic mechanism of IJDF-glucuronyltransferase. or- 

glucuronidase activity' and its stimulation of phospholipids. J. Biol. Chem. 259:5521-5525, 1984. 



Field of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology 

Faculty 



Daniel R. Alonso 
Francis Barany 
Carl G. Becker 
Kenneth I. Berns 
Peter BuUough 
Robert W. Dickerman 
Paul Edelson 
John T. Ellis 
Erik Falck-Pedersen 
David Hajjar 
William HoUoman 
Thomas Clifford Jones 
Aaron Kellner 
Jan S. Keithly 



Steven R. Meshnick 
Richard C. Minick 
William M. O'Leary 
Carol K. Petito 
Alfred M. Prince 
Fred Quimby 
Richard B. Roberts 
Charles A. Santos-Buch 
Laurence B. Senterfit 
Gregory W. Siskind 
Kurt H. Stenzel 
Dieter H. Sussdorf 
PaulaTraktman 
Marc E. Weksler 



Research Activities 

The research activities in the Field of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology^ 
cover a broad spectrum of interests including: the molecular biology and structure 
of microorganisms, host response to foreign antigens and the mechanisms and 
natural history of disease. 

Emphasis is given to the molecular biology of microorganisms as it underlies 
their replication and the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis. Microbes are of 
interest because their simplicity renders them attractive model systems to study 
the fundamental processes of life; on the other hand, they are of intrinsic interest as 
subjects to study both as a distinctive life form and because of their impact on 
other forms of life as parasites and/or symbionts. Because of the rapid development 
of molecular biological techniques, in particular genetic engineering, microbiolo- 
gists are now in a uniquely favorable position to ask ever more meaningful and 
sophisticated questions about basic mechanisms and then to apply the answer to 
practical problems of infectious diseases. Currently, both basic and applied studies 
of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites are ongoing within the Field. 

Major programs are also directed to the study of cardiovascular disease and 
how basic pathophysiologic processes such as inflammation, blood coagulation and 
pertubation in the immune s>'stem and its regulation contribute to arteriosclerosis 
and its complications and the pathogenesis of C^hagas' disease or South American 
trypanosomiasis. Together, these diseases are the major causes of cardiovascular 



17 



deaths world-wide. Much of the research carried out involves extensive collabora- 
tion with investigators in other disciplines, especially immunology and hematology. 
We are convinced that this interdisciplinary approach is essential to understanding 
diesase mechanisms and also provides a unique opportunity for graduate students 
by increasing the intellectual diversity of the research program. 

Many members of the program also have clinical responsibilities. We regard 
this as a major research resource because problems relating to the diagnosis, 
etiology, and mechanisms of progressional disease processes arise constantly. 
Presentation and discussion of these make up an important part of the educational 
conferences within the Field. They also provide a never ending source of subjects 
and ideas for both basic and applied research. 

Dr. Alons&s research concerns the pathology of cardiovascular disease, 
including the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, heart attacks and valvular heart 
disease. 

Dr. Barany is concerned with two areas. The first has to do with protein engi- 
neering. He has developed a promising technique by which two additional amino 
acids can be inserted at any place along a protein using the modern techniques of 
molecular genetics and recombinant DNA technology. He is using this approach to 
characterize the specific biological activities of different domains of several 
proteins. Secondly, Dr. Barany is interested in developing DNA transformation as a 
genetic tool in the study of tiypanosomes. 

Dr. Carl G. Beckefs research concerns the elucidation of the mechanisms by 
which tobacco constituents induce cardiovascular disease, including progression of 
arteriosclerosis and trombosis through mechanisms that involve the immune 
sv^stem. These studies also include the mechanisms by which smoking is associated 
with the development of chronic pulmonary disease through activation of inflamma- 
tory pathways. 

Research in E>r. Bems' laboratory concentrates on the elucidation of the mech- 
anisms of replication of the defective human parvovirus, adeno-associated virus. 
These studies include DNA structure, the role of latent infection in the repHcation 
process, and gene regulation. 

Dr. Edelson is interested in the relationship between intracellular parasites 
and phagocytic cells. He is interested in the activation in macrophages by endo- 
toxin and recently has studied the role of macrophage plasma membrane enzymes 
a.s differentiation markers during macrophage activation. 

Dr. Ellis' research concerns the natural history of polycythemia vera and other 
proliferative disorders of the hematopoietic system. 

Current interest in />. />ickerman's research involves the immune response to 
arbovirus infection and the ecology of arbovimses. 

Dr Falck-Pedersen's research involves the study of the mechanism of regula- 
tion of RNA transcription in eukaryotic cells. He is currently using the adenovirus 
genome as a model system in which to study cis acting sequences responsible for 
the termination of transcription. He has been able to demonstrate that specific 
sequences are associated with termination of RNA synthesis. 

/>. Hajjafs research concerns the biology of the cellular constituents of the 
roles of blood vessels and changes in these that lead to the development of atheros- 
clerosis. Dr. Hajjar is particularly interested in the role of viral infection in the 
development of arteriosclerosis. 



18 



Research in Dr. Holloman s laboratory studies cell division and recombination 
utilizing the fungus Ustilago maydis as a model system. Dr. Holloman has been able 
to develop an in vitrx) assay for homologous DNA recombination and has isolated a 
specific enz)Tne from the fungus which is responsible for recombination. The 
specific steps involved in the process of recombination and the specific substrates 
required for each step are currently being defined in his laboratory. 

Dr. Keithiys research is directed toward an understanding of the replication of 
Leishmania. Currently, she is in the process of characterizing the structure of the 
kinetoplast DNA which plays a major role in the life cycle of the organism. 

Dr. O'Leary^'s research is directed towards characterization of the lipid constit- 
uents found in the membranes of bacteria and how these have been influenced by 
the advent of antibiotics. He is also interested in the developing of instrumentation 
for microbiological analysis. 

Dr. Petito's research interest concerns the response of constituents of the 
central nervous system to injury , particularly ischemic injury. This research is partic- 
ularly relevant to the pathogenesis of and the recovery from the effects of stroke. 

Dr. Alfred Prince's laboratory, at the New York Blood Center, is interested in 
the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis and other viral diseases transmitted through 
blood or blood products. 

Dr. Santos-Biisch's research concerns the pathogenesis of Chagas' Disease, or 
South American trypanosomiasis. This research is aimed at elucidating the mecha- 
nisms by which trypanosomes infect host cells, and by which the immune response 
to these parasites can damage cardiac muscle. 

Dr. Senterfits research involves studies on the antigentic structure and patho- 
genesis of mycoplasma with a special emphasis on the role of the attachmc it orga- 
nelle. He is also carrying out research on the biology of respiratory' syncytial virus. 

Research in Dr. Traktman's laboratory involves the molecular genetics of the 
replicatioii of vaccinia \irus DNA with a special emphasis on identification of the 
genes and the enzymes for which they code that are involved in this process. 
Currently, the vaccinia virus encoded topoisomerase has been isolated and its role 
in the replication process is currently being studied in detail. 

Dr. Wekslefs research concerns the effect of aging on the immune system. 
These studies are aimed at understanding the process of aging in general, but also, 
how changes in the immune sy stem may predispose people to the development of 
other diseases associated with growing old. 

Recent Publications 

Alonso, D. R. (with Fcmandes, G., Tanaka, T., et al.), Influence of diet on vaMTuiar lesions in 
autoimmune-prone mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 80:874-8'^"'. 1983. 

Alonso, D. R. (with Weksler, B. B.. Pett, S. B., et al.), Differential inhibition by a^spirin of rascular and 
platelet prostaglandin s\Tithesis in atherosclerotic patients. N.J. .Med. 3()8:8(K)-808, 1983. 

Barany, F. (with Kahn, M. E., and Smith, H. O. ), Directional tran^rt and integration of donor DNA in 
Haemophilus influenzae transformation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 80:"'2~'4-"'2"'8, 1983 

Barany, F. (with Kahn, M. E., and Smith, H. W. ), 1 ransformasomes: Specialized membranous structures 
that protect DNA during Haemophilus transformation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 80:692" 693 1 . 
1983. 



19 



Becker, C. G. (with Francus, T., and Siskind, G. W), The role of antigen structure in the regulation of 
IgE isotype expression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 80:3430-3434, 1983- 

Bems, K. I. (with LeFebvTe, R. B., and Riva, S.), Conformation takes precedence over sequence in adeno- 
associated virus DNA replication. Mol. & Cell. Biol. 4:l4l6-l4l9, 1984. 

Bems, K. I. (with Grossman, Z., and Winocour, E.), Recombination between simian virus 40 and adeno- 
associated virus: Virion coinfection compared to DNA cotransfection. Virol. 134:125-137, 1984. 

BuUough, P. G. (with Nakata, K.), The injury and repair of human articular cartilage: A morphological 
study of 192 cases of coxarthrosis. J. Rheumatol. 10(S9):72-73, 1983. 

BuUough, P. G. (with Jagannath, A.), The morphology of the calcification front in articular cartilage. J. 
Bone Joint Surg. 65-B:72-78, 1983. 

Dickerman, R. W. (with Scherer, W. P.), Equine herds as sentinels for Venezuelan equine encephalitis 
virus activity, Nicaragua 1977. Bull. Pan. Am. Health Org. 1 17:14-18, 1983. 

Dickerman, R. W. (with Boyle, D. B., and Marshall, I. D.), Primary antibody responses of herons to exper- 
imental infection with Murray Valley encephalitis and Kunjin viruses. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 
61:665-674, 1983- 

Ellis, J. T. (with Peterson, P.), Myelofibrosis in the myeloproliferative disorders. In: Myelofibrosis and the 
Biology of Connective Tissue, Berk, P. D., Casto-Malaspina, H., and Wasserman, L. R., eds. Alan R. 
Liss, Inc., New York, 19-42, 1983. 

Falck-Pedersen, E. (with Logan, J., Shenk, T., and Darnell, J. E.), Termination within the Ela adenovirus 
transcription unit induced by insertion of the mouse /S-major globin terminator element. Cell 
40:897-905, 1985. 

Falck-Pedersen, E. (with Citron, B., Salditt-Georgiefif, M., and Darnell, J. E.), Transcription termination 
occurs within a 1000 base pair region downstream from the poly (A) site of the mouse p globin 
(major) gene. Nuc. Acids Res. 12:22:8723-8731, 1984. 

Hajjar, D. P. (with Weksler, B. B.), Metabolic activity of cholesteryl esters in aortic smooth muscle cells 
is altered by prostaglandins I2 and E2. J. Lipid Res. 24:1 176-1 185, 1983. 

Hajjar, D. P. (with Minick, C. R., and Fowler, S. D.), Arterial neutral cholesteryl esterase: A hormone- 
sensitive enzyme distinct from lysosomal cholesteryl esterase. J. Biol. Chem. 258:192-198, 1983. 

Holloman, W. K. (with Kmiec, E.), Synapsis promoted by Ustilago rec 1 protein. Cell 36:593-598, 1984. 

HoUoman, W. K. (with Kmiec, E., Angelides, K. J.), Left-handed DNA and the synaptic pairing reaction 
promoted by Ustilago rec 1 protein. Cell 40:139-145, 1985. 

Jones, T. C. (with Ebrahimzadeh, A.), A comparative study of different Leishmania tropica isolates from 
Iran: Correlation between infectivity and cytochemical properties. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 32:694, 
1983. 

Keithly, J. S. (with Langreth, S. G.), Inefficacy of metronidazole in experimental infections of Leishmania 
donovani, L. mexicana, and trypanosoma hrucei hrucei. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 32:485-496, 
1983. 

Keithly, J. S. (with long, 1) , Wallach, M., Meicra, P. W., and Chang, K-P.), Differential expression of 
mRNA's for and tubulin during differentiation of a parasitic protozoan Leishmania mexicana. 
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81, 1984. 

Mcshnick, S R. (with Irang, N. L., Kitchener, K, Eaton, J. W., and Cerami, A.), Iron containing super- 
oxide disnuitasc from (.rithidia fasciciilata. I*urification, characterization and similarity' to leish- 
manial and trvpanosomal enzymes. J. Biol. Chem. 258:125-130, 1983- 

Mcshnick, S. R. (with Fairfield, A. J., and Faton, J. W.), Malaria parasites adopt host cell superoxide 
dismutase. Science 221:764-766, 1983. 

Minick, C. R. (with Becker, C. G. ), Environmental risk factors and vascular disease. U.S. E. P. A. 600.8/ 
83/002; 1 36 174, 1983. 

Roberts, R. B. (with Francioli, P., Shio, H., and Muller, M.), Phagocytosis and killing of NeisscTia gonor- 
rhoeae hy Trichomonas vaginalis. ]. Inf Dis. 147:87-94, 1983 

Roberts. R B ( with Murray. H. W.. Rubin. B. Y., and Ma.sur, H. ), Impaired production of lymphokines 

and ininuine (gamma) interferon in the acc|uircd inimunocleficiency syndrome. New Eng. J. Med. 
310:883, 1984. 



20 



Santos-Buch, C. A. (with Acosta, A. M., and Sadiqursky, M ), Anti-striated muscle antibody activity 
produced by Trypanosonm cruzi. Proc. Soc. Kxp. Bio. & Med. 172:564-569, 1985. 

Santos-Buch, C. A. (with Chess, Q., Acosta, A. M., and Sethi, J. K.), Reversible acquisition of host cell 
surface membrane antigen by Trypanosoma cruzi. Infect. Immun. 40( 1 ): 299-502, 1985 

Senterfit., L. B., Tetrazolium Reduction Inhibition. In: Methods of Mycoplasmology. Razin, S., and Fully, 
J., eds. Academic Press, New York, pp. 419-422, 1985 

Senterfit, L. B. (with Leith, D. K., Trevino, L. B., Tully,J. G., and Baseman, J. B. ), Host discrimination of 
Mycoplasma primmoniae i^rotcm^ccous immuno^cns. ]. Exp. Med. 157:502-514, 1985- 

Siskind, G. W. (with Goidl, E. A., Choy, J. W., Gibbons, J. J., Weksler, M. E., and Thorbecke, G. J. ), Produc- 
tion of auto-anti-idiotype antibody during the normal immune response. VII. Analysis of the 
cellular basis for the increased auto-anti-idiotypic antibody production by aged mice. J. Exp. Med. 
157:1655-1645, 1985. 

Siskind, G. W. (with Xue, B., Coico, R., Wallace, D., Pemis, B., and Thorbecke, G. J. ), Physiology of IgD. 
IV. Enhancement of antibody production in mice bearing IgD secreting plasmacytomas. J. Exp. 
Med. 159:105-115, 1984. 

Stenzel, K. H. (with Lipkowitz, S., Green, W. C, Rubin, A. L, and Novogrodsky, A. ), Expression of recep- 
tors for interleukin 2: Role in the commitment of T lymphocytes to proliferate. J. Immunol. 
152:51, 1985. 

Stenzel, K. H. (with Suthanthiran, M., Solomon, S. D., William, P. S., Rubin, A. L, and Novogrodsky, A.), 
Hydroxyl radical scavengers inhibit human natural killer cell activity. Nature 507:276, 1984. 

Traktman, P. (with Sridhar, P., Condit, R. C., and Roberts, B. E.), Transcriptional mapping of the DNA 
polymerase gene of vaccinia virus. J. Virology 49: 125-151, 1 984. 

Weksler, M. E. (with Hausman, P. B., Moody, C. E., Innes, J. B., and Gibbons, J. J. ), Studies on the 

syngeneic mixed lymphocTte reaction. III. Development of a monoclonal antibody with speci- 
ficity for autoreactive T cells. J. Exp. Med. 158:1507, 1985- 

Weksler, M. E. (with Gutowski, J. K., Innes, J., and Cohen, S.), Induction of DNA synthesis in isolated 

nuclei by cytoplasmic factors. II. Normal generation of cytoplasmic stimulatory factors y Kmpho- 
cytes from aged humans with depressed proliferative responses. J. Immunol. 152:559, 1984. 



Field of Neurobiology and Behavior 

Faculty 



Harriet D. Baker 
Ira B. Black 
Dana C. Brooks 
Arthur J. L Cooper 
Cheryl Dreyfus 
Daniel Gardner 
Michael S. Gazzaniga 
James G. Gibbs, Jr. 
Gary E. Gibson 
Bernice Grafstein 
Katherine A. Halmi 
Lorraine lacovitti 
Costantino ladecola 



David E. Levy 
J. John Mann 
Hong M. Moon 
Michiko Okamoto 
Gavril W. Pasternak 
Virginia M. Pickel 
Fred Plum 
Donald J. Reis 
Walter F. Riker, Jr. 
David A. Rottenberg 
David A. Ruggiero 
Jeri A. Sechzer 
Gerard P. Smith 



21 



Tong H. Joh 
Joseph E. LeDoux 



Peter E. Stokes 
Gladys N. Teitelman 
Robert Young 



Research Activities 

Dr. Harriet Baker is interested in quantitative immunocytochemical analysis of 
enzyme expression. The role of olfactory receptor neurons in control of neurotrans- 
mitter expression in the olfactory bulb with special reference to catecholamine 
and peptide neurons is a primary research focus. Strain and species differences in 
neurotransmitter expression is another research interest. The techniques used in 
these studies include immunocytochemistry, neurochemistry and neuronal tracing 
techniques. 

Dr. Ira B. Black studies the molecular genetics underlying neuronal plasticity 
in the peripheral nervous system and the brain. A combination of in vivo, tissue 
culture, molecular biological, biochemical and morphologic techniques are 
employed to explore plasticity, and its role in flinction of the nervous system. 
Developmental as well as aging models are being studied. 

Dr. Dana C Brooks is using signal averaging techniques to study the manner 
in which auditory information is processed as it passes through the first relay 
nucleus of the auditory sy^stem in the cat. The potential fields generated by the 
subdivisions of this nuclear complex are being mapped using an IBM XT and 
computer graphics programs. 

Dr. Arthur J. L. Cooper is working in the area of 2-keto acid biochemistry and 
pyridoxal phosphate en2ymes. Another area of active research is the metabolism of 
amino acids and ammonia in the brain. For this purpose, molecules labeled with 
short-lived radioisotopes are synthesized and their distribution in brain is analyzed 
by positron emission tomography. Cerebral energy metabolism, with particular 
emphasis on the malate-asparate shuttle, and its disruption in various disease states 
is also being investigated. 

Dr. Cheryl Dreyfus' research examines phenotypic development of specific 
neurons of the central nervous system and emphasizes definition of environmental 
factors which may influence brain cell development. This work has concentrated 
on ontogeny of noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus, as well as dopami- 
nergic cells of the substantia nigra and peptidergic and cholinergic neurons of the 
striatum and nucleus basalis. 

Dr. Daniel Gardner studies how neurons use chemical synaptic transmission 
to communicate with one another. Neurons in ganglia of the mollusc Aplysia are 
probed by intracellular recording, voltage clamping, patch clamping, and 
computer-based analysis to yield principles of organization of cell networks. One 
project focuses on the particular kinetic properties of single transmitter-activated 
channels which are altered in order to determine duration, and therefore efficacy, 
of different postsynaptic currents. A second project asks how different synaptic 
currents function to coordinate the activity of neurons in a network. 

I>r. Michael S. dazzani^a utilizes neuropsychological approaches to behavior 
in man to examine the effects of corpus commissurotomy ("split-brain" surgery) 
on cognition with reference to interhemispheric interaction. These neuropsycho- 



22 



logical studies are carried out on patients who have had NMR (nuclear magnetic 
resonance) scans to determine the tme extent of callosal separation. 

Dr. James G/ftfts' research focuses on the neurobiology of motivated behaviors, 
especially the neuroendocrine mechanisms controlling feeding behavior in animals 
and the pathophysiology of eating disorders in humans. 

Dr. Gary E. Gibson examines the relation of calcium, oxidative metabolism 
and neurotransmitters to altered mental function and cell death. These interactions 
are examined in animal models of conditions that alter mental function in man 
(aging, hypoxia, and thiamin deficiency) as well as in tissues from Alzheimer 
patients. In ini)0 neurotransmitter metabolism is related to behavior and to 
changed in vitro. Human studies include enzyme measurements on autopsied brain 
as well as studies of lymphocytes, red blood cells and cultured skin fibroblasts. 

Dr. Bemice Grafstein is concerned with nerve regeneration and the response 
of nerve cells to injury. Techniques used include light and electron microscopy and 
radioactive isotope methods for analyzing the axonal transport of proteins and 
other cellular constituents. 

Dr. Katherine Halmfs research on anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa 
includes long term follow-up studies, investigation of appetite and satiety mecha- 
nisms in eating disorder patients, assessing taste preferences, neurendocrine investi- 
gations and psychological assessments. 

Dr. Lorraine lacovittfs research activities are directed toward the study of the 
developing nervous system. She is examining the principles which govern pheno- 
typic expression or particular neurotransmitters in neurons of the peripheral and 
central nervous system. 

Dr. Constantino ladecola's primary interest is the regulation of cerebrai circu- 
lation, metabolism and blood-barrier permeability, role of neural pathways and reac- 
tion to injury. 

Dr. Totig H. Job's main interests are the biochemistry and molecular genetics 
of neurotransmitter enzymes and receptors, and neurospecific protein. Multidisci- 
plinary studies with molecular biologists, developmental biologists, and histochem- 
ists include the structural analyses of genes coding for neurotransmitter enz\Tnes, 
gene regulation at transcriptional level, quantitative analysis of niRNAs, and gene 
expression during development and aging. 

Dr. Daind E. Leiry is developing techniques for predicting which comatose 
patients will recover and which will not. These efiforts include utilization of posi- 
tron emission tomographic scanning to study unconscious patients. He collects 
detailed clinical information on patients with stroke so that methods for predicting 
recovery from stroke can be developed as they have been for coma. Development 
of an easily-utilized data entry and analysis system designed to accept serial clinical 
data on patients with a variety of neurological illnesses is an integral part of these 
efiforts. In the coming year, clinical trials of promising therapeutic agents for acute 
stroke will probably be initiated as well. 

Dr. John Mann's research focusses on aminergic receptor regulation and trans- 
mission abnormalities in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Human 
postmortem brain tissue, peripheral blood cells with beta adrenergic and seroto- 
nergic receptor complexes and related animal models are utilized to study the 
normal and diseased state. The laborator>' has a particular interest in the neuro- 



23 



chemical correlates of depressive and anxiety disorders, suicidal behavior and the 
action of antidepressants. 

Dr. Hong Mo Moon studies the molecular biology of human chromosome 2 1 
(q221 and q222). 

Dr. Michiko Okamoto investigates pharmacologic and neuropharmacologic 
bases of the tolerance, physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms caused by 
general CNS depressants. Barbiturates, alcohol and benzodiazepines are the proto- 
types for the study. A quantitative methodology for the pharmacologic characteriza- 
tion of tolerance and physical dependence on these CNS depressants in animal 
models, underlying neuronal mechanisms for these events, sleep disorders 
produced by these drugs are the primary interest. The approach to research is 
multidisciplinary involving a wide range of laboratory techniques including modem 
chromatographic methods for determination of drugs and neurochemical trans- 
mitter substances and electrophysiologic techniques for monitoring central and 
peripheral neuronal responses. 

Dr. Virginia M. Pickel studies ultrastructural synaptic interactions between 
monoaminergic and peptidergic neurons in brain. Present research is directed 
toward a more complete understanding of the synaptic circuitry between neurons 
containing specific transmitters in the basal ganglia and in brainstem nuclei asso- 
ciated with central cardiovascular regulation. Specific interactions between central 
monoaminergic and peptidergic neurons are being examined in the adult and 
developing rat brain using immunocytochemical markers and electron microscopy. 
The peptides of current interest include opioids, substance P, neurotensin, and 
angiotensin. 

Dr. Fred Plum focuses his research efforts on cerebral metabolism in disease 
states and their role in ischemic cell death. 

Dr. Donald J. Reis' research interests are the central neural and neurochemical 
mechanisms governing control of the autonomic nervous system, cerebral blood 
fl(jw and metabolism. His research also includes mechanisms governing the death 
of brain neurons in response to aging and injury. 

lyr. Walter F. Rikefs studies on the neuropharmacology of nerve endings 
center on the mechanisms of drug action on neurons, neuronal processes and 
synaptic systems in both the peripheral and central nervous system. Current work 
is concerned with the pharmacologic and functional characterization of motor 
nerve terminal, and with the testing of the hypothesis that the primary anticurare 
and anti-myesthenic actions of facilitatory drugs are exerted prejunctionally by an 
actin on slow current channels. 

l>r. Daiid A. Rottenherg investigates neurological imaging with positron emis- 
sion tomography ( PET ) and transmission computerized tomography. PET studies 
have focusscd on the use of "-^Rb to measure blood-to-brain and blood-to-tumor 
transport rate constants and tissue plasma water volumes. Elucidating the acute 
effects of whole-brain radiation therapy and corticosteroids on these transport 
systems is another goal. Other studies employing '"F-fluorodeoxyglycose are 
designed to evaluate the toxicity of combined cranial irradiation and intrathecal 
methotrexate in long-term survivors of childhood acute leukemia. He also main- 
tains a laboratorv' devoted to quantitative autoradiography. 

Dr. I). A. Riiggiero s interests include: anatomical and neurochemical pathways 
in brain which maintain normal resting levels of arterial blood pressure; neural 



24 



substrates of the baroreceptor reflex; pathways underlying the cerebellar regula- 
tion of autonomic activities and cerebral blood flow; areas of autonomic representa- 
tion in cerebral cortex and brainstem reticular formation; adrenaline synthesizing 
neurons and their pathways in the central nervous system. 

Dr.JeriA. Sechzefs research interests include early development, behavioral 
toxicology, sensory receptors, and neural mechanisms of memory and learning. Her 
activities include. ( 1 ) the efiect of lithium chloride on maternal behavior and early 
development; ( 2 ) olfactory and gustatory thresholds in depression; ( 3 ) bioethical 
issues concerning the use of animals in research and education. 

Dr. Gerard P. Smith is interested in eating behavior and its disorders. Current 
experiments include the measurement of central monoamines during eating 
behavior, the role of gut peptides such as cholecystokinin, animal models of eating 
disorders using genetic and sham feeding rats, and the experimental analysis of 
taste and eating in human patients with various types of eating disorders. 

Dr. Peter E. Stokes is interested in neuroendocrine function in affective 
disease. Measurements of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HYPAC) function 
at various levels of this axis are obtained in patients with depression vs healthy 
normal controls and patients with other psychiatric diagnoses. Current specific 
interests include: response of the HYPAC system to administration of CRF, ACTH, 
dexamethasone and adrenocortical steroid blockers, pharmacokinetics of dexa- 
methasone, measurement of multiple adrenal steroids, investigation of the relation- 
ship between HYPAC function and biogenic amine and sympathetic nervous system 
activity. A second ai ea of interest is the investigation of lithium pharmacokinetics 
and the pharmacology-toxicology of lithium in animals and humans. 

Dr. Gladys Teitelman's research interests include the cellular events coi.trol- 
ling the expression of neurospecific proteins, such as neurotransmitter biosyn- 
thetic enzymes in autonomic ganglia of avian and mammalian embryos. Another 
area of research revolves around mechanisms in the differentiation of the endo- 
crine cells of pancreatic islets from cells transiently expressing neurospecific 
enzymes. The techniques used in these studies include tissue culture, biochemistry' 
and immunocytochemistry. 

Dr. Robert Youngs interest is in approaching relationships between brain 
neurotransmitter function and behaviors by studying patients with major depressive 
illness developing in late life compared to normal elderly subjects. Measures of 
brain neurotransmitter function, particularly catecholamines and indoleamines, 
brain structure and behaviors are studied in individuals when symptomatic and 
after pharmacologic or other antidepressant treatment. Neurotransmitter metabo- 
lite excretion, neuroendocrine challenge tests, brain imaging, and antidepressant 
drug concentrations are measures applied during illness episodes. Biologic and 
behavioral measures of age-acquired vulnerability to depression are also a focus of 
ongoing studies. 

Recent Publications 

Baker, H. (with Kawano, T., Albert, V. R, Joh. T. H., Reis, D.J. and Margolis, F L). Olfacton- bulb 

dopamine neurons survive deaffereniation induced loss of t>Tosinc hydroxylase. .\et4r()sdeme 
//.<i05-616, 1984. 



25 



Black, I. B. (with Adler, J. E., Drey'fiis, C. F , Jonakait, G. M., Katz, D. M., LaGamma, E. F., and Markey, K. 
M ), Neurotransmitter plasticity' at the molecular level. Science 225.1266-1270, 1984. 

Cooper, A. J. L. (with Fitzpatrick, S. M., and DufiFy, T. E.), Use of B-methylene-D, L-aspartate to assess the 
role of aspartate aminotransferase in cerebral oxidative metabolism./ Neurochem. 4(5):1570- 
1383, 1983. 

Cooper, A. J. L. (with Mora, S. M., Cruz, N .F., and Gelbard, A. S.), Cerebral ammonia metabolism in 
nyperammonemic rats./ Neurochem. 44, 1716-1723, 1985. 

Dreyfus, C. F. (with Black, I. B., Adler, J. E., Jonakait, G. M., Katz, D. M., LaGamma, E. F., and Markey, K. 
M.), Neurotransmitter plasticity at the molecular level. Science 225:\266-l270, 1984. 

Gardner, D. (with RuflF, R. L., and White, R. L), Choline acts as agonist and blocker for Aplysia choli- 
nergic synapses./. Neurophysiol. 5/.1-15, 1984. 

Gardner, D. (with White, R. L.), Physostigmine prolongs the elementary events underlying decay of 
inhibitory postsynaptic currents in Aplysia. J. Neurosci. 3 -2607-2613, 1983- 

Gazzaniga, M. S. (with Holtzman, J. D., Deck, M., and Lee, B. C. P.), NMR assessment of human callosal 

surgery with neurops>'chological correlates. Neurology (in press). 
Gazzaniga, M. S., Advances in cognitive neurosciences: The problem of information storage in the human 

brain. In: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Lynch, G., McGaugh, J. L., and Weinberger, N. 

M., eds.. The Guilford Press, New York, pp. 78-88, 1984. 

Gibbs, J. (with Smith, G. P.), The neuroendocrinology of postprandial satiety. In: Frontiers in Neuroen- 
docrinology, Vol. 8, Martini, L. and Ganong, W. F., eds.. Raven Press, New York, pp. 223-245, 
1984. 

Gibbs, J., Eflfect of bombesin on feeding behavior. Life Sci. 37:147-155, 1985. 

Gibson, G. E. (with Peterson, C), Amelioration of age-related deficit in acetylcholine release and 
behavior with 3,4-diaminopyridine. In: Aging of the Brain, Samuel, D., Algeri, S., Gershon, S., 
Grimm, V., and Toflfano, G., eds., Raven Press, New York, pp. 337-348, 1983- 

Gibson, G. E. (with Peterson, C), Synaptosomal calcium metabolism during hypoxia and 3,4- 
diaminopyridine treatment. / Neurochem. 42:248-253, 1984. 

Grafstein, B. (with Burmeister, D. W.), Removal of optic tectum prolongs the cell body reaction of 
axotomy in goldfish retinal ganglion cells. Brain Res. 327.-45-51, 1985. 

Grafstein, B. (with Perry, G. W. and Burmeister, D. W.), Changes in protein content of goldfish optic 
nerve during degeneration and regeneration./. Neurochem. 44:\\i2- 1151, 1985. 

Halmi, K. A., Somatic and behavioral treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia. In: Karger Biohehav- 
ioral Medicine Series, Vol. 4, Powers and Femandex, eds., Karger/Basel, Switzerland, pp.48-62, 
1984. 

Halmi, K. A., Anorexia nervosa. In: Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 4th edition. Vol. 2, Kaplan, 
H. 1. and Sadock, B. J., eds., Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore/London, pp. 1 143-1 148, 1984. 

lacovitti, L. (with Joh, W H., Albert, V. R., Reis, D. J., and Teitclman, G. ), Partial expression of catechola- 
minergic traits in cholinergic chick ciliary ganglion: studies in livo and in iHtro. Dev. Biol., in 
press. 

ladecola, C:. (with Nakai, M., Mraovitch, S., Ruiggiero, D. A., Tucker, L. W., and Reis, D. J.), (ilobal 

increase in cerebral metabolism and blood flow produced by focal electrical stimulation of dorsal 
medullary reticular formation in rat. Brain Res. 272. 101-1 14, 1983 

ladecola, C. (with Mravotch, S., Meeley, M. P., and Reis, D. J.), Lesions of the basal forebrain in rat selec- 
tively impair the cortical vasodilation elicited from cerebellar fastigial nucleus. Brain Res. 279.41- 
52, 1983. 

Joh, 1 M (with Haetge, H. E., Moon, H. M., Kaplan, B. H, Park, I). H., and Reis, 1), J ), Identitkation of 

clones containing DNA complenieniarN to phenylethanolaniine N niethyltransfcra.se mRNA. ;Vc'//r 
oc/j<v//. /«// 5r5y.<)l 1 r)!". 1983. 

Joh, r H (with Baelge, E. E., Ros.s, M. E., and Reis, D. J.), Evidence for the existence of homologous 
gene coding regions for the catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes. In: Cold Sfniny, Hatijor 
Sym/MKsia on (Jiuitititutiiv liiology. Vol. 48, Watson, J. D. and McKay, R., eds. Cold Spring Harbor 
liiboratof) . pp. 327-335, 1983. 



26 



Levy, D. E. (with Caronna, J. J., Singer, B. H., Lapinski, R. H., Frydman, H., and Plum. F. ), Predicting 
outcome from hypoxic-ischemic coma./ Amer. Med. Assoc. 253:1420- 1426, 1985. 

Mann, J. J. (with Petito, C, McBride, P. A., Stanley, M., Chin, J., and Philogue, A.), Age and gender effects 
upon amine receptors and monoamine oxidase in postmortem human brain. In: Clinical and 
Pharmacological Studies in Psychiatric Disorders, Burrows, G. D. and Norman, T. R., eds , Jon 
Libbey, London, 1984. 

Mann, J. J. (with Stanley, M.), Serotonin-2 binding sites are increased in the frontal cortex of suicide 
victims. Z««cer/;2 14-2 16, 1983- 

Okamoto, M. (with Hinman, D. J.), Sleep patterns in cats during chronic low dose barbiturate treatment 
and withdrawal. Sleep 7.<S9-76, 1984. 

Okamoto, M., Barbiturate tolerance and physical dependence: Contribution of pharmacological factors. 
In: Mechanisms of Tolerance and Dependence. NIDA Research Monograph Series 54, pp. 333- 
347, 1985. 

Pickel, V. M. (with Bouyer, J. J., Park, D. H., andjoh, T. H.), Chemical and structural analysis of the rela- 
tion between cortical inputs and tyrosine hydroxylase-containing terminals in rat neostriatum. 
Brain Res. J^>2. 267-275, 1984. 

Pickel, V. M. (with Joh, T. H., Chan, J., and Beaudet, A.), Serotoninergic terminals: Ultrastructure and 
synaptic interaction with catecholamine-containing neurons in the medial nuclei of the solitary 
tracts./ Comp. Neurol. 225.291-301, 1984. 

Reis, D. J., Central neural control of cerebral circulation and metabolism. In: Neurotransmitters and the 
Cerebral Circulation, Vol. 2, McKenzie, E. T., Seylaz, J., and Bes, A., eds.. Raven Press, New York, 
pp. 91-119, 1984. 

Reis, D. J., The brain and hypertension: reflections on 35 years of enquir>' into the neurobiology of the 
circulation. Circulation 70(suppl. Ill): 111-31-111-45, 1984. 

Rottenberg, D. A., Intracranial hypotension, intracranial hypertension, pseudortumor cerbri, hydroce- 
phalus. In: Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 17th Edition, Wyngaarden, J. B., Smith, L. H., and Plum, F., 
eds. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1984. 

Rottenberg, D. A. (with Ginos, J. Z., Kearfott, K. J., Junck, L, Dhawan, V., andjarden, J. O.), In livo 
measurement of brain tumor pH using ['iClDMO and positron emission tomography. Ann. 
Neurol. / 7.70-79, 1985. 

Ruggiero, D. A. (with Ross, C. A., Anwar, M., Park, D. H., Joh, T. H., and Reis, D. J. ), Distribution of 

neurons containing phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in medulla and hypothalamus of rat. 
/ Comp. Neurol., in press. 

Ruggiero, D. A. (with Granata, A. R., Park, D. H , Joh, T. H., and Reis, D. J.), Brainstem area with CI 

epinephrine neurons mediates baroreflex vasodepressor responses. Am. J. Physiol. 2^7^.H547- 
H567, 1985. 

Sechzer, J. A. (with Zola, J. C, Sieber, J. E., and Griffin, A.), Animal experimentation: Issues for the 

1980s. In: Science, Technology and Human Values, Vol. 9, Issue 2, John Wiley and Sons, pp. 40- 
50, 1984. 

Sechzer, J. A. (with Folstein, S., Geiger, E. H., Mervis, R. F., and Meehan, S. M.), Development of iiiatura 
tion of postural reflexes in normal kittens. Exper. Neurol. S6.-493-505, 1984. 

Smith, G. P., Gut hormone hypothesis of postprandial satiety. In: Eating and its disorders. Stunkard. A. J 
and Stellar, E., eds. Raven Press, New York, pp. 67-75, 1984. 

Smith, G. P. (with Gibbs, J.), The neuroendocrinolog)' of postprandial satiety. In: I-n)nticrs of Ncun>en- 
docrinology, Vol. 8., Martini, L. and Ganong, W. F., eds. Raven Press, New ^■()rk, pp 223-245. 
1984. 

Stokes, P. E. (with Bossom, J., Natelson, B. H., and Levin, B. E.). I'ltradian rhythms in cognitive functions 
and their relationship to visceral processes. Physiol. Behav. J/. 1 19-124. 1983 

Stokes, P. E. (with Stoll, P. M.. Koslow. S. H.. Maas, J. W., Da\is,J. M.. Swann. A. C., and Robins. F ), 

Pretreatment DST and hvpothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical fimction in depressed patients and 
comparison groups. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 4 1:257-267, 1984. 



27 



Teitelman, G. (with Joh, T. H., Grayson, L, Park, D. H., Reis, D. J., and lacovitti, L ), Cholingeric neurons 
of the chick ciliary ganglia- express adrenergic traits in invo and in mtro.J. Neurosci. 5( 1 ^.-29-30, 
1985. 

Young, R. C. (with Alexopoulos, G. S., Shamoian, C. A., Manley, M. W., Dhar, A. K., and Kurt, H.), Plasma 
10-hydroxynortriptyIine in elderly depressed patients. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 35(4):540-544, 
1984. 

Young, R. C. (with Alexopoulos, G. S. and Shamoian, C. A), Dissociation of motor responses from mood 
and cognition in a Parkinsonian patient treated with ECT. Biol. Psychiat. 20.566-569, 1985. 



Field of Pharmacology 

Faculty 

Walter W. Y. Chan 
Diane F. Felsen 
Owen W. Griffith 
Raymond W. Houde 
Charles E. Inturrisi 
Roberto Levi 



Michiko Okamoto 
Gavril W. Pasternak 
Marcus M. Reidenberg 
Ariene Rifkind 
Walter F. Rikerjr. 
Hazel H. Szeto 



Research Activities 

The faculty in the Field of Phamacology engage in a diverse range of research. This 
affords an unusual breadth of opportunity for training. The principal research areas 
are: 

Analgesic and Opioid Pharmacology 

Dr. C Inturrisi: Definition of the factors influencing the biosynthesis and 
release of opioid peptides; pharmacokinetics and pharmacod>Tiamics of narcotic 
analgesics. 

Dr. R. Houde: Development of methods to evaluate the effects of drugs on 
subjective responses such as pain in the clinical setting. The relationship of pharma- 
c(;dynamic effects to pharmacokinetic parameters are investigated. This studies 
include the design, conduct and analysis of controlled clinical trials and pharmaco- 
kinetic studies of analgesic drugs. Both retrospective and prospective surveys of the 
intluencc of selected variables on the results of these clinical experiments are 
studied. 

/>. 6'. Pasternak: Research goals are the molecular characterization of the 
various classes of opiate receptors and their correlation with specific opiate 
actions. Classes of binding sites are defined using standard biochemical approaches 
as well as a number of irreversible opiates designed and synthesized in the labora- 
tory. ITie role of these various receptor subclasses in a variety of opiate actions in 
liix) are then evaluated. In addition efforts are underway to purify the various 
receptor subclasses using affinity labels developed in the laboratory. In addition to 



28 



synthetic organic chemistry, binding studies and other biochemical approaches, the 
laboratory routinely performs a variety of in vivo bioassays examining analgesia, 
respiratory function, and hormone release. 

Biochemical Pharmacology and Toxicology 

Dr. Griffith 's research involves the design, synthesis and utilization in vivo of 
enzyme-selective inhibitors and substrates. These compounds are used to evaluate 
and to control the metabolite flux through various pathways in intact animals. 
Recent studies have focused on the manipulation of glutathione and cystine metab- 
olism. Enzyme-selective inhibitors were developed that allow both glutathione 
biosynthesis and utilization to be blocked; techniques allowing extracellular 
cystine formation to be controlled were also developed. The inhibitors were 
shown to be useful in treating animal trypanosomiasis, enhancing oxidative killing 
of tumor cells, and preventing the formation of leukotriene C. New inhibitors are 
now being developed to allow in vivo control of carnitine metabolism. Applica- 
tions of these compounds include the investigation and therapy of inherited 
diseases of lipid metabolism and diabetes. 

Dr. A Rifkind: Mechanisms of aromatic polyhalogenated hydrocarbon toxici- 
ties (PCP and dioxins) are the focal point of study. SusceptibiUty of organisms to 
chemical toxicity during embryonic development, the role of cytochrome P-450 
mediated mixed function oxidases and of arachidonate metabolites in the produc- 
tion of toxicity are being investigated. The cardiotoxic effects of PCBs and dioxins 
are also under study. 

Cardiovascular Pharmacology 

Dr. R. Levi: Research in cardiovascular pharmacology covers two areas One is 
on the role of cardiovascular dysfunctions in immedicate hypersensitivity reactions. 
The heart is studied as a target organ in immunologic hypersensitivity reactions. 
The role of chemical mediators such as histamine, platelet activating factor, prosta- 
glandins, leukotrienes and other arachidonate metabolites in immunologic hyper- 
sensitivity reactions are investigated in sub-human cardiac tissues. Another area of 
research covers studies on the putative physiologic role of endogenous cardiac 
histamine as a modulator of neural sympathetic activity in the heart. 

Clinical Pharmacology 

Dr. M. Reidenberg: Research efforts address the question of why different indi- 
viduals react differently to the same drug. The focus is on specific adverse drug 
reactions and how impaired kidney function, aging or genetically determined rates 
of drug metabolism lead to individual differences in dose response. 

Endocrine and Renal Pharmacology 

Dr. W. Y. Chan: Research activities center on the interactions between the 
neurohypophysial hormones and prostaglandins in the uterus and the kidney. The 
role of oxytocin and prostaglandins in the genesis of preterm labor and the develop- 
ment of specific oxytocin antagonists as potential agents for the prevention of 
preterm labor are the major foci of research. Ongoing projects also include the 
study of the physiology of prostaglandins in primary dysmenorrhea and the pharma- 
cology of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in the treatment of this menstrual 
dysfunction. 



29 



The parmacology of natriuretic neurohypophysial peptides and their ability to 
release intrarenal prostaglandins are also being studied to evaluate their potential 
as antihypertensive agents. 

Dr. D. Felsen: Research on arachidonic acid metabolites centers in the role of 
prostaglandins and leukotrienes in renal function in the normal state and in disease 
states, such as acute obstruction. The function and metabolism of arachidoic acid 
in the liver, furthermore, the role of the inflammatory mediator, platelet activating 
factor in renal failure and the role of PAF and other mediators in hypertension are 
investigated. 

Neuropharmacology 

Dr. W. F. Riker,Jr.: Studies on the neuropharmacology of nerve endings center 
on the mechanisms of drug action on neurons, neuronal processes and synaptic 
sy stems in both the peripheral and central nervous system. Current work is 
concerned with the pharmacologic and functional characterization of motor nerve 
terminal and with the testing of the hypothesis that the primary anticurare and anti- 
myesthenic actions of facilitatory drugs are exerted prejunctionally by an action on 
slow current channels. 

Dr. M. Okamoto: Pharmacologic and neuropharmacologic bases of the toler- 
ance and physical dependence and withdrawal caused by general CNS depressants 
are investigated. Barbiturates, alcohol and benzodiazepines are the prototypes for 
the study. A quantitative methodology for the pharmacologic characterization of 
tolerance and physical dependence on these CNS depressants in animal models, 
underlying neuronal mechanisms for these events, and sleep disorders produced by 
these drugs are of primary interest. The approach to research is multidisciplinary 
involving a wide range of laboratory techniques including modern chromatogra- 
phic methods for determination of drugs and neurochemical transmitter 
substances and electrophysiologic techniques for monitoring central and periph- 
eral neuronal responses. 

Pre- and Neo-natal Pharmacology 

Dr. Hazel Szeto: Research is conducted on maternal-fetal pharmacokinetics 
and pharmacodynamics. The pregnant sheep provides a model for studying, 
throughout the last trimester, the relative roles of the placenta and the fetus in 
determining the extent of fetal exposure to maternally administered drugs. Another 
area of research interest is the effects of intrauterine drug exposure on the ontoge- 
netic development of neuro-behavioral activity including sleep and respiratory 
control in the fetus and the neonate. Drugs of interest include the opiate drugs and 
other peptides that are known to influence regulation of behavior and respiration 
in the adult. 

Recent Publications 

C;han, W Y I 'tcrinc and plac ental prostaglandins and their modulation of oxytocin sensitivity and 
contractility in the parturient uterus Hiol. Reprod 29 680 688, 1983 

Chan, W Y. (with Powell. A. M., Alvine, I*., and l.itt, 1. I ), Menstrual PIX..., PdH; and TXA: in normal 
and dysmenorrheie women and their temporal relationship to dysmenorrhea. Prostaglandins 
29:27'3-29(), 198S 



Felsen, D. (with Loo, M. H., Marion, D. N., Vaughan, H. I) , Jr., Albancse, C, and Spcllman, M.,Jr. ). Effect 
of Chronic Unilateral Ureteral Obstniction on Renal Function in Rabbits: Possible Role oflTirom- 
boxane. Surg. Foaim 3'>:642-644, 1984. 

Felsen, D. (with Weisman, S. M., and Vaughan, E. D., Jr. ), Platelet activating factor is a potent stimulus 

for renal prostaglandin synthesis: Possible significance in unilateral ureteral obstruction J. Pharm. 
Exp. Therap., in press. 

Griffith, O. W., Cysteinesulfinate metabolism: Altered partitioning between transamination and decarbox- 
ylation following administration of /3-methylene-DL-aspartate. J. Biol. Chem. 258: 1 S9 1 1 598, 
1983. 

Griffith, O. W., Mechanism of action, metabolism, and toxicity of buthionline sulfoximine and its higher 
homologs, potent inhibitors of glutathione synthesis. J. Biol. C^hem. 257:13704-13712, 1982. 

Houde, R. W., Analgesic potency assays. In: Principles and Techniques of Human Research and Therapeu- 
tics: Selected Topics, F. G. McMahon, editor. Vol II, Sect I, Analgesics and NSAID, edited by R. W. 
Houde, Mt. Kisco, Futura Publishing Co., 1985, pp. 99 26. 

Houde, R. W., The analgesic connection: The Nathan B. Eddy Memorial Lecture. In: L. S. Harris editor. 
National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series no. 55: Problems of Drug Depend- 
ence, 1984, Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985, pp. 138-144. 

Inturrisi, C. E., and Foley, K. M., Narcotic analgesics in the management of pain. In: Analgesics: Neuro- 
chemical, Behavioral and Clinical Perspectives, edited by G. W. Pasternak and M. J. Kuhar, pp. 
257-288, Raven Press, New York, 1984. 

Inturrisi, C. E. (with Yobum, B. C, Goodman, R. R., Cohen, A. H., Pasternak, G. W. ), Increased analgesic 
potency' of morphine and increased brain opioid binding sites in the rat following chronic 
naltrexone treatment. Life Sci., 36:2325-2332, 1985. 

Levi, R., Burke, J. A., Guo, Z.-G., Hattori, Y., Hoppens, C. M., McManus, L. M., Hanahan, D. J., and Pinkard. 
R. N., Acetyl glyceryl ether phosphorylcholine (AGEPC): A putative mediator of cardiac anaphy- 
laxis in the guinea pig. Circ. Res. 54:1 17-124, 1984. 

Levi, R. (with Gross, S. S., Guo, Z.-G., Bailey, W. H., and Chenouda, A. A.), Release of histamine by sv-mpa- 
thetic nerve stimulation in the guinea pig heart and modulation of adrenergic respons#^: A physi- 
ologic role for cardiac histamine? Circ. Res. 54:516-526, 1984. 

Okamoto, M. (with Hinman, D. J.), Sleep patterns in cats during chronic low-dose barbiturate treatment 
and vi-^thdrawal. Sleep 7:69-76, 1984. 

Okamoto, M., Barbiturate tolerance and physical dependence: Contribution of pharmacological factors. 
In: Mechanisms of Tolerance and Dependence. NIDA Research Monograph Series 54, pp. 333- 
347, 1985. 

Pasternak, G W. (with Goodman, R. R.), Visualization of Mu opiate receptors in rat brain using a 
computerized autoradiographic subtraction technique. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., USA 1985. 

Pasternak, G. W. (with Ling, G. S. F., MacLeod, J. M., Lee, S., Lockhart, S.), Separation of morphine anal- 
gesia from physical dependence. Science 226:462-464, 1984. 

Reidenberg, M. M. (with Meyer, B. R., Lewin, M., Drayer, D. E., Pasmantier, M., and Lonski, L. ), (^ti- 

mizing metoclopramide control of cis-platin-induced emesis. Ann. Int. Med. 100:393-395, 1984. 

Reidenberg, M. M. (with Powell, J. H.), Further studies of the response of kidney lysosomes to amino 
glycosides and other cations. Biochemical Pharmacol. 32:3213-3220, 1983. 

Rifkind, A. B.. Hattori, Y, Levi, R., Hughes, M. J., Quilley, C, and Alonso, D. R.. The chick embryo as a 
model for PCB and dioxin toxicity-: Evidence of cardiotoxicity and increased prostaglandin 
s-ynthesis. In: Banburj' Report 18. Biological Mechanisms of Dioxin Action. A. Poland and R. 
Kimbrough, eds. Cold Spring Harbour Press, 1984. pp. 255-266. 

Rifkind, A. B., Sassa, S., Reyes, J., and Mushick, H.. Mortality of chick embnos following polyhalogt ntated 
aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in ovo: Indirect involvement of mixed fimction oxidase induc- 
tion and noninvolvement of changes in uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. Toxicol. AppI Phar- 
macol. 78:268-275, 1985. 

Riker, W. F., Beneficial action of glucocorticoid treatment on neuromuscular transmission during early 
motor nerve degeneration. Kxp. Neurol. ^9 488, 1983 



31 



Szeto, H. H. (with Umans, J. G.), Precipitated opiate abstinence in utero. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 
151:441-444, 1985. 



Szeto, H. H., Correlation between pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of opiates in the maternal- 
fetal unit. In: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Psychoactive Drugs. Marcel Dekker, 
1985. 



Field of Physiology and Biophysics 

Faculty 



Olaf S. Andersen 

Ellen Townes-Anderson 

Walter W. Y. Chan* 

Colin Fell 

Daniel Gardner 

Marvin C. Gershengom 

Bemice Grafstein 

Roger L. Greif (Emeritus) 

Chin OK Lee 

Roberto Levi* 

Chiann-Tso Lin 



Martin Lipkin 
Thomas M. Maack 
Daniel Nachshen 
Lawrence Palmer 
Thomas G. Pickering 
Enrique M. Rabellino 
Barbara Rayson 
John L. Stephenson 
Bernd W. Urban 
Allan M. Weinstein 
Erich E. Windhager 



'Members of the Field of Pharmacology. For representative bibliography, see Field of Pharmacology. 

Research Activities 

Dr. Erich Windhagefs studies are aimed at the elucidation of the mechanisms of 
ion and water transport by renal epithelial cells. The techniques used in Dr. Wind- 
hager's laboratory include: isolated perfused renal tubule segments, intracellular 
measurement of ions by ion selective electrodes, electrophysiological techniques, 
isolated membrane techniques and renal micropuncture methods. Current work 
centers on the role of cytosolic calcium ions as regulators of ion and water trans- 
port in proximal tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney. Collaborating with Dr. 
Windhager are Drs. Heinz, Frindt and Lin. 

lyr. Grafstein investigates nerve regeneration and transport of material in 
nerve axons. She is presently studying regeneration of goldfish optic nerve. Some of 
the conclusions reached in the past years are: drugs that disrupt microtubules 
produce metabolic effects in axons which resemble those produced by axotomy; 
increased synthesis of most transported proteins occurs during regneration; 
removal of a synaptic target delays cell recover)' during regeneration. Dr. Grafstein 
u.ses the following techniques, among others: isotope tracer studies, electronmi- 
croscopy, high resolution autoradiography, and biochemical techniques for identifi- 
cation of substances present in the nerve. 

I}r. Maack studies quantitative a.spects and mechanisms of renal handling of 
proteins. Main recent findings conclude that the disposal of absorbed proteins is 



32 



dependent on an appropriate acid pH of lysosomes and that the absorption of 
albumin is a high capacity-low affinity endocytic transport process. In addition, he 
determined the functional characteristics of atrial natriuretic factor, a substance 
present in the heart which decreases blood pressure and increases salt excretion 
by the kidney. The techniques used in Dr. Maack's laboratory include: isolated 
perfused rat kidney, isolated tubule segments, and biochemical and physiological 
techniques. 

Dr. Andersen is interested in the mechanisms by which ions cross membranes. 
His studies entail analysis of single channel permeability in lipid bilayers, with 
emphasis on the physical and chemical properties of proteins which serve as chan- 
nels. Recently, Dr. Andersen succeeded in reconstituting Na channels obtained 
from brain tissue into lipid bilayers. Techniques used in Dr. Andersen's laboratory 
include: single channel analysis, electrophysiological measurements, and physio- 
chemical analysis. 

Dr. Stephenson is interested in theoretical aspects of transport in biological 
systems. Much of his recent research centers on transport of water and electrolytes 
in epithelia and in the kidney. One group of current studies focuses on the relation 
of medullary concentration gradients and the osmolality of final urine in the 
mammalian kidney to tubular and vascular permeabilities, flows, and architecture. 
A second project is to develop a mathematical model of electrolyte transport in the 
whole kidney, which includes electrolytes (Na, K, CI, HCO3, H2PO4, H), glucose 
urea, protein osmotic forces, hydrostatic pressure, and electrical potential. 
Approaches to these problems include both computer simulation and the develop- 
ment and theoretical analysis of mathematical models. 

Dr. Gershengom studies the molecular mechanisms through which he- monal 
regulation of cellular secretion is ajSfected. In particular, he is attempting to deter- 
mine the intracellular sequence of events that is involved in stimulation by 
thyrotropiii-releasing hormone (TRH) of secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone 
(thyrotropin) and prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland. He has demonstrated 
a central role for calcium ion as a coupling factor between stimulation by TRH and 
secretion, and a role for phosphoinositides, a class of highly metabolically active, 
minor phospholipids, in the regulation by TRH of cellular calcium metabolism. He 
is studying the mechanism of the TRH effect on the phosphoinositides and cellular 
calcium homeostasis. 

Dr. Pickerings main area of research is concerned with development of 
improved methods for the noninvasive measurement of blood pressure. First, he is 
using ambulatory monitoring techniques to learn more about the causes of blood 
pressure variabilit)' in normal and hypertensive subjects. This work has shown that 
most of the observed circadian rhythm of blood pressure can be accounted for by 
changes of activity. Second, he is analyzing the causes and origins of Korotkoff 
sounds with a view to the development of a new technique for blood pressure 
measurement. 

Dr. Fell studies the influence of drugs on vasomobilit)' using the technique of 
intravital microscopy of small arteries of the ear of rabbits and rats. 

Dr. Gardner's laboratory studies how neurons use chemical synaptic transmis- 
sion to communicate with one another. He is concerned with the bioph\'sics of 
synaptic transmission, as well as the properties of neuronal networks. Recent 
discoveries were:l ) choline activates inhibitor)- acetylcholine receptors oi Af)lysiii 



33 



buccal ganglia, and 2 ) dual-function excitatory-inhibitory synapses co-ordinate the 
two phases of their postsynaptic potentials by a voltage-dependent change in dura- 
tion. Techniques used by Dr. Gardner include electrophysiological voltage- and 
patch-clamping, and computer data acquisition and analysis. 

Dr. Lee investigates ionic mechanisms underlying changes in contractile force 
of cardiac muscle and ion transport across cardiac cell membrane. He recently 
demonstrated that cardiac glycosides increase cardiac muscle contractility by 
changing intracellular activities of sodium and calcium ions. Techniques used in 
Dr. Lee's laboratory include: isolated cardiac Purkinje fibers and intracellular 
recordings with ion selective electrodes. 

Dr. Palmefs research focuses on the mechanism of transepithelial Na reabsorp- 
tion by tight epithelia, and the control of this process by hormones and other 
factors. The nature of the transport system facilitating sodium movement across the 
apical membrane of epithelial cells is being elucidated using the toad urinary 
bladder as a model epithelium. Techniques used in Dr. Palmer's laboratory include: 
patch-clamping, current-voltage analysis, and flux ratio analysis. 

Dr. Rabellino's research interests are primarily related to the study of the 
several cellular and molecular processes involved during the acquisition of func- 
tional competence by differentiating blood cells. In past studies he has investigated 
in the lymphoid, myeloid and megakaryocytic series, the phenotypic evolution of 
developing marrow cells using monoclonal antibody technology and flow 
cytometry . Currently, studies are in progress to investigate protein synthesis, cell 
DNA distribution and synthesis, as well as RNA accumulation in developing megaka- 
ryocytes. Studies are also in progress to assess expression and changes of specific 
protein genes throughout megakaryocytopoiesis using cDNA probes for different 
alpha granule proteins. 

Dr. Nachshen's laboratory studies fundamental properties of presynaptic nerve 
terminals. Since calcium entry into the nerve terminal triggers the release of neuro- 
transmitter substances. Dr. Nachshen is studying the detail of this process and how 
internal pH and intracellular calcium are related to neurosecretion. Techniques 
used in Dr. Nachshen's laboratory include: use of pinched-off nerve endings (synap- 
tosomes), measurements of intracellular calcium with optical indicator substances. 

Dr. Rayson's research activities center on the investigation of the regulation of 
Na-K/ATPase (Na pump) in kidney cells. Recent discoveries include the finding 
that intracellular Na levels regulate the number of active Na-K/ATPase enzyme sites 
in outer medullary tubular segments of the kidney. Techniques used in Dr. Rayson's 
laboratory include: suspension of tubular segments of the kidney, biochemical tech- 
niques, and nuclear magnetic resonance. 

/>. Urban studies the molecular actions of general anesthetics on membrane 
ion channels. He is investigating the mechanisms by which anesthetics change 
sodium and potassium currents in nerves (squid giant axon) and which effects 
anesthetics have on single sodium and gramicidin A channels (in lipid bilayer 
systems). Techniques used in Dr. llrban's laboratory include: voltage-clamp, electro- 
physiological techniques and lipid hilayers. 

Dr. Wcinstcin is interested in the theory of solute and water transport across 
epithelia and developing a mathematical model of proximal tubular function using 
computer techniques. 



34 



Recent Publications 



Andersen, O. S., Green, W. N., and Urban, B. W., Ion conduction through NA' channels in planar lipid 
bilayers. In: Reconstitution of Ion Channels, ed. C. Miller, Plenum, New York, in press. 

Andersen, O. S., Durkin, J. T., Blout, E. R., Heitz, F., Koeppe II, R. H., and rmdelle, V , Structural informa- 
tion from functional measurements. Single-channel studies on gramicidin analogs. Biophys. J., in 
press. 

Frindt, G., and Windhager, E. E., Role of Ca*" as a regulator of Na* permeability in epithelia. In: Epithelial 
Calcium and Phosphate Transport: Molecular and Cellular Aspects. Proc. Sec. Intl. Workshop on 
Calcium and Phosphate Across Biomembranes. Eds. F. Bronner and M. Petcrlik. Vienna, pp. ""1- 
75, 1984. 

Frindt, G., and Windhager, E. E., Role of cytosolic calcium in renal tubular transport. Nephrology, Proc. 
IXth Intl. Congr. Nephrology. Ed. Roscoe R. Robinson. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 51-56, 
1984. 

Gardner, D., Ruff, R. L, and White, R. L, Choline acts as agonist and blocker for Aplysui cholinergic 
synapses. J. Neurophysiol., 51:1-15, 1984. 

Gardner, D., Voltage-dependence of s'ynaptic time course reduces excitation at a diphasic s-ynapse. Brain 
Research 306:365-369, 1984. ' 

Gershengom, M. C, and Kolesnick, R. N., Arachidonic acid inhibits thvTotropin-releasing hormone- 
induced elevation of cytoplasmic free calcium in GH3 pituitary cells. J. Biol. Chem. 260:707-713. 
1985. 

Gershengom, M. C, and Kolesnick, R. N., Direct evidence that burst but not sustained secretion of 

prolactin stimulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone is dependent on elevation of cytoplasmic 
calcium. J. Biol. Chem! 260:52 1 7-5220, 1 985. 

Grafstein, B., and Burmeister, D. W., Removal of optic tectum prolongs the cell body reaction to 
axotomy in goldfish retinal ganglion cells. Brain Res. 327:45-51, 1985. 

Grafstein, B., Perry, G. W., and Burmeister, D. W., Changes in protein content of goldfish optic nerv e 
during degeneration and regeneration. J. Neurochem. 44:1 142-1 151, 1985. 

Lee, C. O., and Im, W.-B., Quantitative relation of twitch and tonic tensions to intracellular Na* activity 
in carciiac Purkinje fibers. Am. J. Physiol. 247:C478-C487, 1984. 

Lee, C. O., Grupp, I., Im, W.-B., Lee, S.-W., Pecker, M., and Schwartz, A., Relation of sodium pump inhibi- 
tion to positive inotropy at low concentrations of ouabain in rat heart muscle. J. Physiol. 
(London), 360:149-160, 1985. 

Lin, J. T., Schwarc, KL, and Stroh, A., Chromatofocusing and centrifugal reconstitution as tools for the 
separation and characterization of the Na'^-cotransport system of the brush border membrane. 
Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 774:254-260, 1984. 

Lin, J. T., Schwarc, K., Kinne, R., and Jung, C. Y., Structural state of the Na*/D-glucose cotransport in calf 
kidney brush border membranes. Target size analysis of Na*-dependent phlorizin binding and 
Na*-dependent D-glucose transport. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 77^:201-208. 1984. 

Maack, T., and Wall, D. A.. Endocytic uptake, transport, and catabolism of proteins by epithelial cells. 
Editorial Re\iew. Am. J. Physiol. 248(Cell Physiol. 1^):C12-C20. 1985. 

Maack, T., Camargo, M.J. F., Kleinert, H. D., liiragh, J. H.. and Atlas, S. A.. Atrial natriuretic factor; Struc- 
ture and functional properties. Editorial Re\iew. Kidney Intemat. 2":60~'-615. 1985 

Nachshen, D. A., The early time course of potassium - stimulated calcium uptake in presynaptic nen e 
terminals isolated from rat brain. J. Physiol. 361:251-268, 1985. 

Nachshen, D. A., Regulation of cytosolic calcium concentration in presynaptic nene endings is<)lated 
from rat brain. J. Physiol. 363, 1985. 

Palmer, L. G., Voltage-dependent block by amiloride and other monovalent cations of apical Na channels 
in the toad urinary bladder. J. Membrane Biol. 80:153-165, 1984. 

Palmer, L. G., M(xlulation of apical Na permeability of the load urinary bladder by intracellular .Na, Ca. 
and H.J. Membrane Biol. 83:5^-69, 1985. 



35 



Pickering, T. G., Harshfield, G. A., Kleinert, H. D., Denby, L. D., Clark, L., Pregibon, D., Jason, M., Kleiner, 
B., Borer, J. S., and Laragh, J. H., Left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with hypertension: Impor- 
tance of blood pressure response to regularly recurring stress. Circulation 68, No. 3:470-476, 
1983. 

Pickering, T. G., Harshfield, G. A., Devereux, R. B., and Laragh, J. H., What is the role of ambulatory blood 
pressure monitoring in the management of hypertensive patients? Hypertension Vol. 7, No. 2:171- 
177, 1985. 

Rabellino, E. M., Levene, R. B., Leung, L. L. K., and Nachamn, R. L., Human Megakaryocytes II Expression 
of platelet proteins in early immature megakaryocytes. J. Exp. Med. 154:88-100, 1981. 

Rabellino, E. M., Levene, R. B., Daniel Lamaziere, J-M, Broxmeyer, H. E., and Lu, L, Human Megakaryo- 
cytes V. Changes in the phenotypic profile of differentiating megakaryocytes. J. Exp. Med. 
161:457-474, 1985. 

Rayson, B. M., Nichols, N. R., Khalid, B. A. K., Fuller, P. J., and Funder, J. W., A common 43K protein 

induced by glucocorticoids in a variety of cells and tissues. Submitted to Molecular and Cellular 
Endocrinology, 1983. 

Rayson, B. M., and Lowther, S. O., Steroid regulation of kidney Na'^/K'^ ATPase: Differential sensitivities in 
the nephron. Am. J. Physiol 246:F656-F662, 1984. 

Sackin, H., and Boulpaep, E. L., Rheogenic transport in the renal proximal tubule. J. Gen. Physiol. 82:819- 
851, 1983. 

Sackin, H., and Boron, W. F., Measurement of intracellular ionic composition and activities in renal 
tubules. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 45:483-496, 1983. 

Stephenson, J. L., and Mejia, R., Solution of a multinephron, multisolute model of the mammalian kidney 
by Newton and continuation methods. Mathematical Biosciences, 68:279-298, 1984. 

Stephenson, J. L., Kaimal, R, and Kellogg, B., A mathematical model for the transport of PAH analogues 
in the kidney. Mathematical Biosciences, 69:103-129, 1984. 

Urban, B. W., and Haydon, D. A., The admittance of the squid giant axon at radio frequencies and its rela- 
tion to membrane structure. J. Physiol. 360:275-291, 1985. 

Urban, B. W., Modifications of excitable membranes by volatile and gaseous anesthetics. In Effects of 

Anesthesia. Clinical Physiology Series (Covino, B. G., Fozzard, H. A., Rehder, K., and Strichartz, G., 
eds. ), pp. 1 3-28, American Physiol. Society, Bethesda, MD. 

Weinstein, A. M., A non-equilibrium model of the rat proximal tubule epithelium. Biophys. J. 44:153- 
170, 1983. 

Weinstein, A. M., Transport by epithelia with compliant lateral intercellular spaces: asymmetric oncotic 
effects across the rat proximal tubule. Am. J. Physiol. 247:F848-F862, 1984. 

Windhager, E. E., Lorenzen, M., and Lee, C. O., Cytosolic Ca'"^ and Na^ activities in perfused proximal 
tubules of Necturus kidney. Am. J. Physiol. 246:F93-F102, 1984. 

Windhager, E. E., and Frindt, G., Regulatory Role of Calcium in Sodium Transport. In "Biological 

Membranes - Information and Energy Conduction in Biological Membranes." Eds. L. Bolis, E. 
Helmreich, and H. Passow. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, pp. 403-406, 1984. 



36 



Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 




Sloan-Kettering Division 



Unit of Cell Biology and Genetics 

Faculty 

Karen Artzt 
M. Earl Balis 
Dorothea Bennett 
June L. Biedler 
Ellen Borenfreund 
Raju S. K. Chaganti 
Zbigniew Darz\Tikiewicz 
Eleanor E. Deschner 
David B. Donner 
Magdalena Eisinger 
Eileen A. Friedman 

Research Activities 

The staff and faculty of the Cell Biology and Genetics Unit explores aspects of devel- 
opmental cell biologv , including embr\^ogenesis; the growth and differentiation of 
normal and transformed cells; endocrinolog)' and hormone receptors; genetics, 
cytogenetics and somatic cell genetics. These studies are pursued using the most 
modem cellular biologic, genetic, molecular biologic and immunologic 
methodologies. 

Specific study is aimed at understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms 
that control coordinated gene expression and cell proliferation during induced cell 
differentiation, changes in DNA and chromatin structure that accompany cell differ- 
entiation, and regulator)' interactions involved in the proliferation and differentia- 
tion of normal and neoplastic hematopoietic and lymphoid cells. Laboratories in 
this I nit arc now identifying the specific genes and gene products responsible for 
the control and arrest of cell proliferation. This has led to the isolation, characteri- 
zation and purification of growth factors (the interleukins, human granulocyte- 
macrophage colony-stimulating factor, melanocyte growth promoting acti\ir\') 
which may play crucial roles in regulating the growth and/or differentiation of 
cells. 

ITic regulation of cell growth and function by extracellular agents such as 
peptide hormones, growth factors and neurotransmitters is under investigation. 
This involves characterization of plasma membrane staicture and function; the rela- 
tionship between peptide hormone receptor structure and transmembrane signal- 
ling; structure and regulation of glycoprotein hormone gene expression; structure 
of intracellular receptors for steroid hormones; and the properties, functions and 
hormonal regulation of intracellular peptidase activities. 



DorrisJ. Hutchison 
lone A. Kourides 
Paul A. Marks 
Myron R. Melamed 
Malcolm A. S. Moore 
Louis M. Pelus 
Richard A. Rifkind 
Allan S. Schneider 
Merry R. Sherman 
Marcello Siniscalco 
Martin Sonenberg 



The genetic control of both normal and abnormal cell differentiation during 
embry'ogenesis is being characterized by an analysis of an extensive set of muta- 
tions in the T/t complex of the mouse. Mechanisms leading to gene amplification 
and the expression of drug resistance in cultured cells are being examined. ITie 
role of homogeneously staining regions, double minute chromosomes and overpro- 
duced gene products in drug resistant cells and as related to expression of the 
malignant neuronal phenorype by human neuroblastoma cells is therefore being 
investigated. The human genome is being mapped. Other research focuses on 
hereditary factors in the etiology of cancer and leukemia in humans as well as the 
identification of individuals with inherited susceptibility to cancer through under- 
standing mechanisms leading to the initiation and progression of neoplasia. In the 
area of human tumor cell biology, the protein products of cellular oncogenes are 
being identified and characterized. The relationship between the expression of 
these unique gene products and cellular transformation is now under intensive 
investigation. 

Of major interest to Drs. Riflzind and Marks are the cellular and molecular 
mechanisms that control coordinated gene expression and proliferation during 
induced cell differentiation. The principal experimental model is the murine 
ervthroleukemia cell, which is a virus-transformed red blood cell precursor 
arrested in its normal developmental process at a stage of the erythropoietic 
lineage called the colony-forming cell for erythropoiesis. Studies of the mechanisms 
implicated in the control of gene expression have demonstrated that the globin 
gene domains in murine erythroleukemia cells have acquired a unique molecular 
configuration with respect to DNA structure and chromatin configuration. Current 
studies are designed to identify and characterize regulatory elements in the globin 
gene domains that may be impUcated in the process of induced gene expression. 

Dr. Biedlefs research is directed toward understanding the genetic mecha- 
nisms underlying the expression of the multidrug-resistant phenotype in Chinese 
hamster, mouse tumor, and human neuroblastoma cells, as well as expression of 
the malignant neuronal phenotype by human neuroblastoma cells. 

Developmental genetics research is being conducted by Drs. Bennett and 
Artzt into the control mechanisms involved in both normal and abnormal differenti- 
ation, using mutant genes as tools. 

The primary efforts in Dr. Siniscalco's laboratory are the mapping of the 
human genome and its application to molecular diagnostics and the investigation of 
chromosomal fragility^ with special reference to aging and malignancy. 

The role played by hereditary factors in the etiology of leukemia and other 
cancers in humans using molecular, cellular and genetic - epidemiologic 
approaches forms the basis of research in the laboratory of Dr. Chaganti. An addi- 
tional research interest in this laboratory is the study of inherited disorders that 
predispose to neoplastic disease, notably the recessively inherited disorders: 
Fanconi's anemia, ataxia-telangiectasia, and Bloom's s^yndrome. Current studies 
emphasize isolation of the genes determining these disorders; while genetic epide- 
miologic approaches address the problem of cancer etiology at the population and 
pedigree levels. Another area of active research relates to the analysis of the 
kinetics of hematopoietic tissue regeneration following allogeneic bone marrow 
transplantation. 



39 



Of related interest are investigations of the concept of immune cell participa- 
tion in hematopoiesis in Dr. Moore's laboratory. The roles of postaglandin E and T 
cells are currently under investigation in hematopoietic dysfunctions such as 
aplastic anemia, in allogeneic marrow transplantation and in the development of 
new techniques for treating mismatched marrow before transplantation. Together 
with Dr. Moore, Dr. Pelus is investigating the biological role of "pluripoeitin" in 
sustaining long-term proliferation of pluripotential stem cells and primary myeloid 
leukemic cells. 

The identification and characterization of factors involved in growth stimula- 
tion or differentiation of skin melanocytes and keratinocytes is the focus of Dr. 
Eisingefs work. 

Basic research is also underway in Dr. Melamects laboratory to determine 
quantitative differences in cellular constituents that distinguish different classes of 
cells and in the molecular structure of sub-cellular components that are affected by 
cell differentiation, transformation and progress through the cell cycle. Working 
with Dr. Darzynkiewicz the laboratory developed new probes and new methods 
for obtaining multiparameter measurements of cells that give information on chro- 
matin structure, gene activation, cell-cycle phase and cellular differentiation to 
further these research goals. 

Several investigators in the Unit are conducting research on hormones. Dr. 
Donner is studying, on a molecular level, how peptide hormone-receptor interac- 
tions are regulated and translated into changes of cell growth, differentiation, or 
metabolism. The long-range objective of Dr. Sonenberg is the molecular descrip- 
tion of membrane transduction of peptide hormonal messages after interaction 
with a specific membrane receptor or other membrane component. Dr. Sherman is 
conducting research on the structure of the intracellular receptors for steroid 
hormones, the properties and ftinctions of intracellular peptidases, the hormonal 
regulation of peptidase synthesis, activity and secretion, and the possible role of 
peptidases as mediators of steroid action. Dr. Kourides studies the structure and 
molecular regulation of glycoprotein hormone genes and the molecular basis for 
human chorionic gonadotropin gene expression in normal and neoplastic tissues. 

Dr. Balis' research is concerned with the regulation and ftinction of a series of 
enzymatic reactions known as the "adenosine cycle". Intimately connected to this 
study are the ftinctions of enzymes involved in the methylation of various nucleic 
acids. 

Recent Publications 

Artzt, K., Relationship of the murine t-haplotypes and the H-2 complex., Surv. Immunol. Res. 2:278-280, 
1983. 

Anzt, K. (with Shin, H-S., Flaherty, L, Bennett, 1) , and Ravetch, J.), Inversion in the H-2 complex of t- 
haplotypes in mice. Nature, 306:380-383, 1983- 

Bali.s, M. E. (with Dunzendorfer, U., Relyea, N. M., Kleinert, H., and Whitmore, W. F. Jr.), Antigrowth 
effect of some inhihitors of polyamine synthesis on transplantable prostrate cancer. Oncology, 
40:57-62, 1983. 

Bennett, D. (with Shin, H-S., McCormick, P., and Artzt, K.), Cis- Trans test shows a functional relationship 
between non-allellic lethal mutations in the T/t-complex. Cell 33:925-929, 1983. 



40 



Bennett, D. (with Shin, H-S., Flaherty', L, Artzt, K., and Revetch, J ), Inversion in the H-2 complex of i- 
haplotypes in mice. Nature, 306:380-383, 1983. 

Biedler, J. L. (with Chang, T O., Peterson, R. H. F., Melera, F. W., Meyers, M. B., and Spengler, B A.), 
Gene amplification and phenotypic instability in dnig-resistant and revertant cells In: Rational 
Basis for Chemotherapy. B. A. (-habner, ed. IIC.IA Symposia on Molecular and (xllular Biolog)', 
New Series, Vol. 4, New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp. 71-92, 1983. 

Biedler, J. L. (with Melera, P. W., and Spengler, B. A.), Chromosomes abnormalities and gene amplifica- 
tion: Comparison of antifolate-resistant and human neuroblastoma cell systems. In: Chromosomes 
and Cancer: From Molecules to Man. J. D. Rowley and J. F. Ultmann, eds. Bristol-Myers (iancer 
Symposia, Vol. 5, New York: Academic Press, pp. 1 17-138, 1983. 

Chaganti, R. S. K., Significance of chromosome changes to hematopietic neoplasms. Blood 62:515-524, 
1983. 

Chaganti, R. S. K. (with Jhanwar, S. C, Koziner, B., Arlin, Z., Mertelsmann, R., and Clarkson, B. I). ), 
Specific translocations characterize Burkitt's-like lymphoma of homosexual men with the 
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Blood 61:1265-1268, 1983- 

Darzynkiewicz, Z. (with Williamson, B., Carswell, E. A., and Old, L. J.), Cell cycle-specific eflfects of 
tumor necrosis factor. Cancer Res. 44:83-90, 1984. 

Darzynkiewicz, Z. (with Evenson, D., Kapuscinski, J., and Melamed, M.), Denaturation of RNA and DNA 
in situ induced by Acridine orange. Exp. Cell Res. 148:31-46, 1983. 

Deschner, E. E. (with Alcock, N., Okamura, T., DeCosse, J. J., and Sherlock, P.), Tissue concentrations 
and proliferative eflfects of massive doses of ascorbic acid in the mouse. Nutrition and Cancer 
4:241-246, 1983. 

Deschner, E. E. (with Long, F. C, Hakissian, M., and Cupo, S. H.), Differential susceptibility of inbred 
mouse strains forecast by acute colonic proliferative response to methylazoxy-methanol. J. Nat. 
Cancer Inst. 72:195-198, 1984. 

Dormer, D., Covalent coupling of human growth hormone to its receptor in rat hepatocytes. J. Biol. 
Chem. 258:2736-2743, 1983. 

Donner, D. (with Yonkers, K.), Hormone-induced conformational changes in the hepatic insulin 
receptor. J. Biol. Chem. 258:9413-9418, 1983- 

Eisinger, M. (with Marko, O., and Weinstein, I. B.), Stimulation of growth of human melanocytes by 
tumor 'promoters. Carcinogenesis 4:779-781, 1983. 

Eisinger, M. (with Tai, T., Ogata, S., and Lloyd, K. O.), Glycoprotein as differentiation markers in human 
malignant melanoma and melanocytes. Cancer Res. 43:2773-2779, 1983. 

Friedman, E. A., Promotion of human premalignant epithelial cells. In: Human Carcinogenesis. C. C. 

Harris, and H. N. Autrup, eds. New York: Academic Press, pp. 325-368, 1983. 
Hutchison, D. J., Modes of acquiring resistance to antineoplastic agents. In: Clinical Chemotherapy. N'ol 

3, Antineoplastic Chemotherapy, H. P. Leummerle, ed. New York: Thieme-Stratton Inc., pp. 368- 

383, 1984. 

Hutchison, D.J. (with Schmid, F. A.), Experimental cancer chemotherapy with folate antagoni.sts. In: 
Folate Antagonists as Therapeutic Agents. Vol. 2, F. M. Sirotnak, J. J. Burchall, \X . B. Fnsmiger 
[sic], and J. A. Montgomery, eds. New York: Academic Press, pp. 1-22, 1984. 

Kourides, I. A. (with Gurr, J. A., and Catterall, J. F.), Cloning of cDNA encoding the pre-beta subunii of 
mouse thyrotropin. Prox. Natl. Acad. Sci. 80:2122-2126, 1983- 

Kourides, I. A. (with Schorr-Toshav, N. L., Gurr, J. A., and (Catterall, J. F. ), Thyrotropin and alpha-subunit 
in the brain: evidence for biosynthesis within the pituitary . Fndo.crinology 1 12:143^ 1983 

Marks, P. A. (with Murate, T., Kaneda, T., and Rifkind, R. A. ), Inducer-mediated commitment of murine 
erythroleukemia cells to terminal cell di\ision: The expression of commitment. Proc Natl Acad 
Sci. 81:3394-3398, 1984. 

Marks, P. A. (with Sheflfrey, M., and Rifkind, R. A.), Gene expression in murine erythroleukemia cells; 

Transcriptional control and chromatin structure of the ai-globin gene. J. Mol. Biol. 1^2:4 l"'-4 36. 
1984. 

Melamed, M. R. (with Klein, F. A.), Flow cytometry of urinary bladder irrigation specimens Human Path 
15:302-305, 1984. 



41 



Melamed, M. R. (with Cordon-Cardo, C, Bander, N. H., Finstad, C. L, 'Whitmore, W. F., Uoyd, K. O., 

Oettgen, H. F., and Old. 1. J ), Immunoanatomic dissection of the human urinary tract by monoc- 
lonal antibodies. J. Histochem. & Cytochem. 32:1035-1040, 1984. 

Moore, M. A. S. (with Gabrilove, J., and Sheridan, A. P.), Therapeutic implications of serum factors inhib- 
iting proliferation and inducing differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells. Blood Cells 9:125-137, 
1983. 

Moore, M. A. S. (with Yung, Y-P, and Wang, S-Y), Characterization of mast cell precursors by physical 
means: dissociation from T cells and T cell precursers. J. Immunol. 130:2843-2848, 1983. 

Pelus, L. M., CFU-GM expression of la-like HLA-DR antigen. An association with the humoral control of 
human granulocyte and macrophage production. Exp. Hematol. 10:219-231, 1983. 

Pelus, L. M. (with Gold, E., Saletan, S., and Coleman, M.), Restoration of responsiveness of chronic 

myeloid leukemia granuloc\te-macrophage colony-forming cells to growth regulation in vitro 
following preincubation with prostaglandin E. Blood 62:158-165, 1983- 

Rifkind, R. A. (with Shen, D. W., Real, F., DeLeo, A, Old, L. J., and Marks, P. A.), Protein p53 and inducer- 
mediated erythroleukemia cell commitment to terminal cell division. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 
80:5919-5922, 1983. 

Rifldnd, R. A. (with Profous-Juchelka, H. R., Reuben, R. C, and Marks, P. A.), Transcriptional and post- 
transcriptional regulation of globin gene expression in murine erythroleukemia cells. Mol. and 
CeU Biol. 3:229-232, 1983- 

Schneider, A. S. (with Herz, R., and Sonenberg, M.), Chlortetracycline as a probe of membrane- 
associated calcium and magnesium: interaction with red cell membranes, phospholipids, and 
proteins monitored by fluorescence and circular dichroism. Biochem. 22:1680-1686, 1983. 

Sherman, M. R. (with Moran, M. C, Tuazon, F. B., and Stevens, Y.-W.), Structure, dissociation, and 

proteolysis of mammalian steroid receptors. Multiplicity of glucocoticoid receptor forms and 
proteolytic enzymes in rat liver and kidney cytosols. J. Biol. Chem. 258:10366-10377, 1983- 

Sherman, M. R. (with Tuazon. F. B., Stevens, Y.-W., and Niu, E.-M.), Oligomeric steroid receptor forms 
and their dissociation and proteolysis. In: Steroid Hormone Receptors: Structure and Function. 
Proceedings of the 57th Nobel Symposium, Karlskoga, Sweden, 1983, Eriksson, H. and 
Gu.stafsson, J -A., eds. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 3-24, 1983- 

Sini.scalco, M. (with Filippi, G., Mannucci, P. M., Coppola, R., Farris, A., and Rinaldi, A.). Studies on hemo- 
philia A in Sardinia bearing on the problems of multiple allelism, carrier detection, and differen- 
tial mutation rate in the two sexes. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 36:44-71, 1984. 

Sini.scalco, M. (with Szabo, P., and Grzeschik, K.-H.), A human autosomal phosphoglycerate kinase locus 
maps near the HLA cluster. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81:3 167-3 169, 1984. 

Sonenberg, M. (with Friedhofif, L. T.), The membrane potential of human platelets. Blood 61:180-185, 
1983. 

Sonenberg, M. (with Corin, R. E., and Haspel, H. C), Transport of the folate compound methotrexate 
decreases during differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells. J. Biol. Chem. 259:206-21 1, 
1984. 



Unit of Development Therapy and Clinical Investigation 

Faculty 

Nancy W. Alcock Bipin M. Mchta 

Ting C^hao Chou Brian A. Otter 

Jack J. Fox Morton K. Schwartz 

Jcrrold Fried Francis M. Sirotnak 



42 



Allan S. Gelbard 
Nancy L Geller 
Susan Groshen 



Stephen S. Sternberg 
Howard T. Thaler 
Kyoichi A. Watanabe 
George Y. Wong 
Louis Zeitz 



Raymond W. Houde 
John S. Laughlin 



Research Activities 

Research in this Unit includes the innovative operation of the first isochronous 
cyclotron to be used in a medical research institution, resulting in the capacity to 
visualize tumors as well as specific organs and tissues. 

Studies are also being carried out to determine whether or not various tumor 
promotors could affect the expression of previously identified cell surface antigens 
on normal human melanocytes or melanoma cells. Satisfactory procedures have 
been developed for autologous transplantation of frozen and stored hematopoietic 
stem cells. Also under investigation are improved methods for purging marrow of 
residual tumor cells and the phenotypic characterization of human leukemias and 
lymphomas. 

Investigators have been working with flow cytometry to detect cell surface 
membrane light chain expression in minimal numbers of B-lymphocytes. This tech- 
nique, which is called clonal excess and requires a mathematical calculation, 
allows the detection of less than 5 percent of malignant cells in cell suspension. 

Other research objectives of this Unit are to characterize the effects of various 
substances on the proliferation, differentiation, and identification of bioche lical 
substances produced by selected childhood tumors and skin tumor tissue 
fibroblasts. 

There are studies in Dr. Sirotnak's laboratory which seek to identify pleiot\pic 
tumor-associated biochemical properties which might be exploited for greater anti- 
tumor selectivity. Some properties already identified as tumor-specific include 
certain nutrient transport mechanisms which mediate accumulation of cytotoxic 
drugs and DNA repair deficiencies. 

Studies of the clinical pharmacology of analgesic drugs in cancer patients are 
being carried out in Dr. Houde's laboratory to provide a rational basis for the 
management of pain due to cancer. The immediate goals of this research are to 
generate reliable information on the therapeutic merits of new and established anal- 
gesic drugs, in particular those that may or do have substantial potential for drug 
abuse and to determine how pharmacokinetic and bio-transformation data ma> 
enable us to predict, or provide, more precise estimates of analgesic efficacy and of 
the liability of adverse drug reactions. 

Dr. Schwartz's studies are related to the development and evaluation of tumor- 
marker assays in blood and tissues for use in the management of the patient with 
cancer. 

Dr. Laughlin, Dr. Gelhard, and Dr. Z«7z study the /// rivo metabolism of 
cancer in patients and in animal tumor systems using metabolites and analogues 
labeled with short-lived, positron emitting radionuclides. These isotopes are 
produced on the Sloan-Kettering Institute isochronous cyclotron and are incorpo- 



43 



rated into compounds by rapid organic methods or by immobilized enzymatic 
procedures. 

Working in Dr. Clarkson's laboratory, Dr. Fried measures key proliferative 
parameters of tumor cells in different types of human hematopoietic tumors in 
order to correlate these measurements with cell-marker studies and clinical 
features, and to identify those factors that are associated with therapeutic success 
or failure. The laboratory also studies the effects of selected cytotoxic drugs and 
regulators of cell growth and differentiation on normal and neoplastic human hema- 
topoietic cells in short term cultures and in established cultures in order to 
develop leads for improved therapeutic programs. 

Improved therapeutic selectivity by rational design of new agents for the treat- 
ment of human cancer with folate and nucleoside analogues continues as a major 
interest of Dr. Sirotnak's laboratory. Toward this basic goal studies are focused on 
various biochemical properties of tumor cells and normal proliferative cells impor- 
tant to pharmacologic action of these agents, their selective cytotoxicity against 
tumor cells compared to normal proliferative tissues, including cellular membrane 
transport, interaction of these agents with primary and secondary enzymic or 
membrane targets, their intracellular metabolic disposition, and their pharmacoki- 
netic behavior. 

Dr. Fox, Dr. Watanabe, and Dr. Otter's studies continue to be directed toward 
the design and chemical synthesis of new compounds as potential anticancer or 
antiviral agents. The laboratory has recently initiated a new program that seeks to 
define the limits of structural change that are consistent with the retention of 
biological activity. 

lyr. Chou and Dr. Stemhergs research objectives are the study of the mecha- 
nisms of action of antitumor and antiviral agents; the biochemical and pharmacolog- 
ical bases for the selectivity of effects on different targets; and a theoretical formula- 
tion for quantitative dose-effect relationships that permits the automated computer 
analysis of relative potency and therapeutic index, and facilitates the study of the 
interaction of multiple drugs in combination chemotherapy. 

In their laboratory, Drs. Geller, Groshen, Thaler, and Wong have developed a 
computerized data base for the storage and retrieval of clinical research data perti- 
nent to the collection, processing and distribution of clinical samples to the 
research laboratories. 

Recent I\iblicati()ns 

Akotk, N.W. (with Casper, H. S., Kclscn, D. P., and Lewis, J. L, Jr.), Ip cisplatin in patients with nialig 

nant ascites, pharmacokinetic evaluation and comparison with the iv route. J. Chancer Treat. Rep. 
67:235-238, 19«3. 

C hou. I .e. ( with Schmid, I . A., l einixrg, A , Phillips, \ S., and Han, J. ), Uptake, initial effects, and 

chemotherapeutic efficacA of harringlonine in murine leukemic cells sensitive and resi.stant to 
\ini risiinc and other c hemotherapeutic agents. Cancer Res. 43:3074-3079, 19S3. 

Fried, J (with Pere/, A. (»., Dohlin, j. M., and ( larkson, B. I). ), I actors modifying the synergistic toxicity 
of deoxycytidine in combination with tlninidine plus S-fluorouracil in Hel.a cells, (xll Tissue 
Kinel l6 S-\9 S »H. 1983. 



44 



Fox, J. J. (with Young, W., Schneider, R., Leyland-Jones, H.. Armsirong, 1)., Tan, C. V. C, l^ope/., C, 
Watanabe, K. A., and Philips, F. S. ), Phase 1 evaluation of 2' iluoro-S-iodo- I-beta-D- 
arabinofuran()syk>tosine in immunosuppressed patients with heq-)es\irus infection, (lancer Res. 
43:5()()6-50()9,'l9'83. 

Fox, J. J. (with Pankiewicz, K. \X ., Matsuda, A., and Vt atanabe, K. A. ), Nucleosides- 1 26. Selective niethyla 
tion of the (l-nucleoside, psi-isoc\tidine and its 2'-de()xy analog Synthesis of 1 -methyl, 3-niethyl 
and 4-0-methyl derivatives. Tetrahedron 4():33-3«, 1985. 

Geller, N. L (with Bosl, G. J., Carrincione, C, Vogel/.ang, N. J.. Kennedy, B. J., VCIiitniore, W. F.,Jr., 

Vugrin, D., Scher, H., Nisselbaum, J., and Golbey, R. B. ), Multivariate analysis of prognostic varia 
blcs in patients with metastatic testicular cancer. Cancer Res. 43:3403-34()'^, 1983 

Geller, N. L Statistical strategies for animal conser\ation. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 406:20-31- 1983. 

Groshen, S. (with Dinsmore, R., Kirkpatrick, I)., Flomenberg, N., Gulati, S., Kapoor, N., Shank, B., Reid. A., 
and O'Reilly, R. J.), Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for patients with acute lymphob 
lastic leukemia. Blood 62:381-388, 1983- 

Ciroshen, S (with Li, W. K., Lane, J. M., Rosen, G., Marcove, R. C:., Gaparros, B., and Hunos, A. ), Pelvic 
Ewing's sarcoma. Advances in treatment. J. Bone Joint Surg. 65A:738-747, 1983. 

Houde, R. W. (with Grabinski, P. Y.. Kaiko, R. F., Walsh, T. D., and Foley, K. M.), Morphine radioimmu- 
noassav speciflcitv before and iifter extraction of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. J. Pharm. Sci 
72:27-30, 1983. 

Houde, R. W. (with Kaiko, R. F., Wallenstein, S. I., and Rogers, A. Ci. ), Sources of variation in analgesic 
responses in cancer patients with chronic pain receiving morphine. Pain 15:191-200, 1983 

Laughlin, J. S. (with Nath, R., Fpp, H. P., Swanson, W. P., and Bond, Y. P.), Neutrons high energ\' X-ray 

medical accelerators: An estimate of risk to the radiotherapy patient. Medical Physics 1 1:231-241, 
1984. 

Laughlin, J. S., Development of quality assurance in radiation therapy in North America. Int. j. Radiation 
Oncolog) Biol. Phys. 10: No. 1, 1984. 

Mehta, B. M. (with Glass, J. P., and Shapiro, W. R.), Serum and cerebrospinal fluid distribution of 5- 
methyltetrahydrofolate after intravenous calcium leucovorin and intra-Ommaya methotrexate 
administration in patients with meningeal carcinomatosis. Cancer Res. 43:435-438, 1983 

Otter, B. A. (with Lim, M L, Ren, W-Y., and Klein, R. S), Synthesis of "9-deazaguanosine " and other new 
pyrrolo|3.2-d|pyrimidine C-nucleosides. J. Org. Chem. 48:^80-^88. 1983. 

Otter, B. A. (with Sasson, L, and Ciagnier, R. P. ), The chemistr\' of 5-hydroxy-6- ( hydroxyalk) I ) uracils. 
Synthesis of spiro(pyrimidine-4,2'-pyrano(3,2-d]pyrimidines] J. Heterocvclic Chem. 20:^53-~57, 
1983. 

Schwartz, M. K. (with Osborne, M. P., Rosen, P. P., U\sser, M. L., Menendez-Botet, C. J., Fi.shman. L H . 
Kinne, D. W., and Beattie, E. J , Jr. ), The relationship between family histor>', exposure to 
exogenous hormones, and estrogen receptor protein in breast cancer. Cancer 51:2134-2138. 
1983. 

Schwartz, M. K., Immunoassy of enzymes— an oven iew. Clin. Biochem. 16:4 -9. 1983 

Sirotnak, F. M. (with Dembo, M., and Moccio, D. M), Hftects of metabolic deprivation on methotrexate 
transport in 1.1210 leukemia cells: Further evidence for .separate influx and efllux systems with 
difterent energetic requirements. J. .Membrane Biol. "8:9-1". 1983 

Sirotnak, F. M. (with CheUo, P. L., Dorick, D. M., and Montgomen,, J. A. Specificity of systems mediating 
transport of adenosine, 9-B-l)-arabinofuranosyl-2-fluoroadenine. and other purine nucleoside 
analogues in LI 2 10 cells. Cancer Res. 4 3:104-109. 1983. 

Sternberg, S. S. (with Morrow, R., ^ ong, B., Finkelstein. W. H., and Amistrong. 1). ). A.spergillosis of the 
cerebral ventricles in a heroin abuser Case report and review of the literature. Arth. Intern \k cl 
143:161-164, 1983. 

Sternberg, S. S. (with Witt. T. R., and Shah, j P. ). Juvenile nasopliar>ngeal angiofibroma. A 30 year clin 
ical review. J. Am Surg. 146:521-525, 1983 



45 



Thaler, H. T. (with Lu. L., Broxmeyer, H. E.. Meyers. P. A., and Moore, M. A. S ), Association of cell cycle 
expression of la-Like antigenic determinants on normal human multipotential (CFU-GEMM) and 
ervthroid (BR -E) progenitor cells with regulation in \itro by acidic isoferritins. Blood 61:250- 
256. 1983. 

Thaler, H. T. (with Straus, D. J., Filippa. D. A.. Lieberman. P. H.. Koziner, B.. and Clarkson, B. D.), The 
non-Hodgkin's h-mphomas. 1 . A retrospective clinical and pathologic anah-sis of 499 cases diag- 
nosed between 1958 and 1969. Cancer 51:101-109, 1983- 

Watanabe, K. A. (with Su, T. L, Pankiewicz. K. W.. and Harada. K. ). Novel ring transformation reactions 
and their applications to the svntheses of potential anticancer heterocTclic compounds. Heterocy- 
cles 21:289-307, 1984. 

Watanabe, K. A. (with Su, T-L, Reichman, L., Greenberg, N., Lopez, C, and Fox, J. J ), Nucleosides. 129. 
S\Tithesis of antiviral nucleosides: 5-Alkenyl-l -(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-B-D-arabinofuranos\1) uracils. J. 
Med. Chem. 27:91-94, 1984. 

>X'ong, G. Y.. Rank-one round robin designs. J. American Stat. Assn. 79:136-144, 1984. 

Zeitz, L. (with Laughlin, J. S., Ma, I., and Pipman, J.), "Non-isolated-sensor" solid tissue equivalent A- 150 
plastic absorbed dose measurements. Radiation Res. 94:578, 1984. 



Research Activities 

The main interests of the Unit are the study of the development, general properties, 
function and regulation of the cellular components of the immune response, as 
well as the secreted products of such cells. Research is conducted in three main 
areas: 1 ) immunogenetics, especially the cell surface determinants involved in the 
differentiation and fimction of normal and malignant lymphoid cells; 2 ) cellular 
immunology, especially the cellular interactions and secreted cell products 
required for effective immune respon.ses; and 3) tumor immunology, particularly 
the analysis of the immunological properties of the transformed cancer cells and 



Unit of Immunology 

Faculty 



Edward A. Boyse 
'Wonne Cayre 

Charlotte Cunningham Rundles 

Bo Dupont 

Robert L. Evans 

Neal Flomenberg 

Ulrich Hammerling 

Michael K. Hoffman 

Alan N. Houghton 

Genevieve 8. Incefy 

Robert W. Knowles 

Janet Lee 



Kenneth O. Lloyd 
Carlos Lopez 
Herbert F. Oettgen 
Lloyd J. Old 
Richard J. O'ReiUy 
Bijan Safai 
Fung- Win Shen 
Osias Stutman 
Jwu-Shen Tung 
Chang-Yi Wang 
Soo Young Yang 



46 



the immunological interactions between tumor and host, aimed at designing 
possible diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Research in these three main areas is 
done using both experimental animal models as well as human cells. Since immu- 
nology is multidisciplinar\' in its approaches to a given problem, it not only has 
generated its own methodology' (such as the production of monoclonal antibodies, 
the continuous in vitro growth and cloning of the relevant lymphoid cells, the in 
intro technologies for measurements of immunological fimction, etc. ) but also uses 
the methods of other disciplines, such as biochemistry and molecular biology. For 
example, the analysis of the biological significance of a given membrane surface 
antigen is not only studied by applying conventional genetics and immunological 
function assays, but biochemically for the isolation of the given membrane surface 
antigen, definition of its structure and characterization of the gene(s) coding for 
such a determinant. Thus, the general approach of the research program is to 
define immunological events at the biological, biochemical, and molecular levels. 

The Unit offers the opportunity for obtaining a Ph.D. degree with emphasis on 
the various sub-disciplines of immunology such as immunogenetics, immunocheni- 
istry , molecular immunology, immunopathology, tumor immunology, transplanta- 
tion immunology and clinical immunology. 

Dr. Boyse's laboratory focuses on the description and understanding of genetic 
programs that specify the unique molecular constitution (surface phenot\pe ) of 
the outer membrane of cells according to their developmental lineage and stage of 
dififerentiation. 

The two main research objectives of Dr. Cayre's laboratory are to study cell 
surface immunogenetics at the molecular level and to investigate the molecular 
basis of cell differentiation and proliferation. 

The central themes for Dr. Duponfs laboratory continue to be the characteri- 
zation of the genetic composition of the genes of the human major histocompata- 
bility complex (MHC) (i.e., the HLA system); the investigation of the molecular 
genetic basis for the expression of these extensive genetic pohinorphisms of the 
MHC-encoded cell surface antigens as detected in the population; and the biolog- 
ical role of MHC gene products in immunoregulation and other biological func- 
tions. The laboratory is also involved in investigations in the area of transplantation 
immunology, particularly in relation to the understanding of mechanisms respon- 
sible for graft vs. host disease. 

Dr. Evans carries out studies aimed at defining and characterizing surface 
membrane molecules that control antigen recognition and immune regulation by 
T-lymphocytes. Human T cell surface antigens defined by mouse monoclonal anti- 
bodies are analyzed by determining their size and subunit compositions, and by 
characterizing their functions. 

Investigations in Dr. Flomenbergs laboratory' focus primarily on the activation 
and effector functions of T-l\Tnphoc>tes. A large portion of this work concerns the 
molecular interactions between the T cell and its target, focusing on the niajo. 
histocompatibility complex gene products that initially activate or serve as targets 
for T cells, as well as the T cell surface molecules that are important for T cell 
fijnction. 

For the mouse the majority of genes encoding hmphocyie antigens are orga 
nized in distinct multigene families positioned on several chromosomes Study of 
these gene clusters continues to be the major theme of />. Hamnierlings ettorts. 



47 



The immunogenetics of murine and human lymphoid and hemopoietic cell surface 
antigens using monoclonal antibodies is another area of Dr. Hammerling's studies. 

The main interest of Dr. Hoffmann's studies is the analysis of the direct and 
factor-mediated cellular interactions in the human and murine antibody responses 
in intro. 

Dr. Houghton's research program to investigate the pathogenesis and treat- 
ment of malignant melanoma arises from his interest in the biology^ of human solid 
tumors. Dr. Houghton views malignant melanoma as a paradigm for the patho- 
genesis of human cancer. 

The molecular genetics of the human major histocompatability complex or 
HLA genes is the major area of study of Dr. Lee's laboratory. Her work currently 
concentrates in initial studies of characterization and mapping of the genes within 
the HLA region on human chromosome 6; these experiments have indicated the 
presence in the genome of as yet unidentified HLA Class II genes. 

Dr. Knowles's laboratory has developed monoclonal antibodies that provide an 
extensive panel of unique probes to examine cell surface molecules and their func- 
tional epitopes. These probes are used to isolate and to biochemically analyse indi- 
vidual molecules in parallel with functional studies performed collaboratively with 
the laboratories of Drs. Flomenberg and Dupont. Particular emphasis has been 
placed on the molecules required for T cell reactivity to alloantigens leading to 
graft versus host disease following bone marrow transplantation. 

The main efifort in Dr. Oettgen's laboratory' is in the serological analysis of 
human cancer antigens, the human and cellular immune responses to human 
cancer, and the development and application of human cancer therapies using 
cancer antigens, immunogenic cancer vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. 

The principal objective of Dr. O'Reilly's Bone Marrow Transplantation Program 
is the development and improvement of transplantation approaches for the treat- 
ment of lethal disorders of the blood system through an integrated program of clin- 
ical and basic research in immunology, hematology , genetics, and transplantation 
biology. 

Investigation into the biology of epidermal cells is the focus of Dr. Safais 
research, with the objective of defining the antigenic components of the epidermal 
keratinocytes and their secretory capacity. 

Working mostly with normal lymphoid cells and their leukemic derivatives. Dr. 
Shens laboratory is particularly concerned with the regulation and function of 
genetic systems that participate in normal and disordered differentiation. 

Investigations of the glycoproteins and glycolipids of human tumor cells and 
normal cells continue to be the basis of research in Dr. Lloycfs laboratory. Partic- 
ular emphasis has been placed on the biochemical identification and characteriza- 
tion of these components. 

ITie definition of the steps involved in the development, maintenance and ftinc- 
tion of I ( ihymus-dcpendent ) cells through the use of murine models has been 
one of the main areas of />. Stutrnan 's research. Another area of interest is the 
study of the immunological components of the tumor-host interaction. These 
studies include the definition of tumor-specific cytotoxic T cell responses; examina- 
tion of the role of such responses in aftecting tumor development and behavior, 
and the production of specific and non-specific cytotoxic cells that can kill tumor 
cells. 



48 



Dr. Old's research is concerned with the development of two new approaches 
to cancer therapy: tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and monoclonal antibodies 
directed against surface determinants on malignant cells. The latter is part of a 
general effort to analy/^e the cell surface of human and murine tumors, with the aim 
to characterize the important surface molecules, mostly with monoclonal anti- 
bodies and other serological procedures. 

The work of />* Wang's laboratory is concerned with the structural and func- 
tional characterization of human lymphocyte differentiation antigens as defined by 
mouse monoclonal antibodies, expression of these antigens on various lymphocyte 
subpopulations in the peripheral blood and in different compartments of the 
lymphoid system, both in normal and lymphoid-malignancy patients; monoclonal 
antibody-induced or monocyte-induced modulation of human lymphocyte surface 
antigens in intro, the fate of these antigens following modulation; and investigation 
of the lymphokines that are involved in the proliferation and differentiation of 
normal and neoplastic lymphoid cells, including B cell growth and differentiation 
factors. 

Dr. Yang is involved in studies of T-lymphocyte activation, lymphokine produc- 
tion and regulation, T-lymphocyte macrophage interactions, and characterization of 
T-lymphocyte differentiation antigens and their functions, as well as the gene orga- 
nization and regulation of gene expression in the Class I MHC genetic region in 
humans. 

Recent Publications 

Boyse, E. A. (with Beauchanip, G. K., and Yamazaki, K. ), Ilic sensory perception of genot>pic polymor- 
phism of the major histocompatibilit)' complex and other genes: some physiological and ph\ loge- 
netic implications. Human. Immunol. 6:177-183, 1983 

Boyse, E. A. (with Yamazaki, K.. Beauchamp, G. K., Egorov, I. K., Bard, J., and ITiomas, L. ), Sensor)- 
distinction between H/ and mutant mice. Froc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 80:S685-S688, 1983. 

Cayre, Y. (with Daniel, F., Morello, D., Le Bail, O., Chambron, P., and Kourilsk)', P.), Structure and 

expression of the mouse /32-microglobulin gene isolated from somatic and non-expressing terato- 
carcinoma cells. EMBO Journal 2:1061-1065, 1983. 

Gunningham-Rundles, C. (with Carr, R. I.), Dietary protein anti-genemia in humoral immuno deficiencN 
disease: correlation with splenomegaly. Am. J. Med. 70:181-185, 1984. 

Dupont, B. (with Flomenberg, N., Kazuniki, N., DuflFy, E., Knowles, R. W., and Kvans, R. I..), Allocxiotoxic 
T cell clones: Both Leu 2-t-3- and Leu 2-3+ T cells recognize class 1 histocompatibility antigens. 
Eur. Jr. Immunol. 13:905-911, 1983. 

Dupont, B. (with Broxmeyer, H. E .Juliano, L., Lu, L., and Platzer, H. ), HIA DR human histocompatibility 
leukoc\te antigens-restricted lymphoc>le-monoc>ie interactions in the relea.se from monoc)les 
of acidic isoferritins that .suppress hematopoietic progenitor cells. J. Glin. Invest. "3 939 953. 
1984. 

Evans. R. L. (with Engelman, E. (,., Benike, G. J., Met/ler, G, and Gatenby, P A ), Blocking oMuiman 1 
lymphoc\les fimctions by anti-leu-2 and anti-leu-3 antibodies: ditferential inhibition of prolifera 
tion and suppression. J. Immunol. 130:2623-2628, 1983 

Evans, R. L. (with Rinnooy. K. E.. Wang, G. Y., and Wang. L. G. ). Noncovalently bonded subunits o( 11 

and 28 kd are rapidly interali/ed by \ cells reacted with anti-leu i antibody. J Immunol. 1 3 1 536 
539, 1983. 

Flomenberg, N. (with Duft>, E., and Dupont, B. ), 1984 HIA cla.ss I specific I lymphoc\ie clones with 
dual alloreactive functions. Scand. J. Immunol. 19:237-245. 1984 



49 



Flomenbcrg, N. (with Russo, C, Ferrone, S., and Dupont, B ), HLA class 1 specific T-lymphocyte clones 
with dual alloreactive functions. Immunogcnetics 19:39-51, 1984. 

Hammerling, U. (with Chan, M. M., Tada, N., Kimura, S., Hofifrnann, M. K., Miller, R. A., and Stutman, O.), 
Characterization of T lymphocyte subsets with monoclonal antibodies: discovery of a distinct 
marker, Ly-m22, of T suppressor cells. J. Immunol. 130:2075-2078, 1983- 

Hammerling, V. (with Tada, N., Kimura, S., and Liu-Lam, Y.), Exchange of cell-associated beta2- 
microglobulin in mouse chimeras. Immunogcnetics 18:173-175, 1983. 

Hoflimann, M. K. (with Chan, M. M., Tada, N., Kimura, S., Miller, R. A., Stutman, O, and Hammerling, U.), 
Characterization of T lymphocyte subsets with monoclonal antibodies: discovery of a distinct 
marker, Ly-m22, of T suppressor cells. J. Immunol. 130:2075-2078, 1983- 

Hoffmann, M. K. (with Gilbert, K. M.), Suppressor B lymphocytes. Immunol. Today 4:253-255, 1983- 

Houghton, A. N., Identification of difierentiation antigens of melanoma and melanocytes by mouse and 
human monoclonal antibodies. Transplant. Proc. 16:351-354, 1984. 

Houghton, A. N. (with Thomson, T. M., Gross, D., Oettgen, H. P., and Old, L. J.), Surface antigens of mela- 
noma and melanocyutes. Specificity of induction of la antigens by human y-infection. J. Exp. Med. 
160:255-269, 1984. 

Incefy, G. S., Effect of thymic hormones on human lymphocytes. Clin. Immunol. Allergy 3:95-1 17, 1983. 

Incefy, G. S. (with Yamanaka, R., and Good, R. A.), Functional maturation difierence between spleno- 
cvtes that form autologous rosettes in adult thymectomized and aged mice. Thymus 5:35-42, 
r983. 

Knowles, R. W., Biochemical analysis of human thymus leukemia-like antigens. In: Bernard, A., Boumsell, 
L, Dausset, J., Milstein, C, and Schlossman, S. F. (Eds.), Leucocyte Typing. Berlin: Springer- Verlag, 
pp. 248-256, 1984. 

Knowles, R. W., Human thymus leukemia-like antigens and other class 1 molecules distinct from the 
HAL-A, B, C antigens. In: Heise, E. R. (Ed.), Lymphocyte Surface Antigens. New York: American 
Society for Histocompatibilit>^ and Immunogcnetics, Chap. 1 1, 1984. 

Lloyd, K. O. (with I^rson, G., Stromberg, N., Thruin, J., and Karlsson, K.-A.), Mouse monoclonal antibody 
F-3 recognizes the difiacosyl type-2 blood group structure. Immunogcnetics 17:537-541, 1983. 

Lloyd, K. O. (with Fradet, Y., Cordon-Cardo, C, Thomson, T., Daly, M. E., Whitmore, W. F., Melamed, M. 
R., and Old, L. J. ), Cell surface antigens of human bladder cancer defined by mouse monoclonal 
antibodies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81:224-228, 1984. 

Oettgen, H. F. (with Houghton, A. N., Brooks, H., Cote, R. J., Taormina, M. C., and Old, L. J ), Detection 
of cell surface and intracellular antigens by human monoclonal antibodies. Hybrid lines derived 
from lymphocytes of patients with malignant melanoma. J. Exp. Med. 158:53-65, 1983. 

Oettgen, H. F. (with Knuth, A., Danowski, B., and Old, L. J.), T-cell mediated cytocoxicity against autolo- 
gous malignant melanoma: Analysis with interleukin 2-dependent T-cell cultures. Proc. Natl. 
Acad. Sci. 81 :35 1 1-35 1 5, 1984. 

Old. L. J. (with Albino, A. P., Lloyd, K. O., and Ikeda, H.), Biochemical analysis of a 130,000 molecular 
weight glycoprotein on human melanoma cells. J. Immunol. 131:1595-1599, 1983. 

Old, L. J (with Iradet, Y, Cordon-Cardo, C., 'Hiom.son. 1.. Daly, M. E., Whitmore, W. F, Jr., Lloyd, K. O., 
and Melamed, M. R. ), (,ell surface antigens of human bladder cancer defined by mouse monoc- 
lonal antibodies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81:224-228, 1984. 

O'Reilly, R. J., Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: Current status and future directions. Blood 
62:941-964, 1983 

O'Reilly. R.J. (with Kiipoor, N., Kirkpatrick, D., Cunningham Rundles. S., Pollack, M. S., Dupont, B., 

Hodes, M. /.. Good, R. A., and Reisner, Y. ). Transplantation for severe combined immunodefi- 
ciency using histocompatible parental marrow fractionated by soybean agglutination and sheep 
red blood cells: experience in six consecutive cases. I ransplant Proc. 15:1 i()5-l 4 1 1, 1983 

Safai. B ( with Coibanu, N , Welte, K., Kruger, G . Venuta., (iold, J., Lcldman, S. P., Wang, C. Y., Ko/iner, 
B.. Moore, M. A. S., and Mertelsmann, R. ), Defective T-cell response to PHA and mitogenic 
monoclonal antibodies in inale homosexuals with acc|uired immunodeficiency syndrome and its 
in vitro corre c tion by interleukin 2. J. Clin. Immunol. 3 332-340, 1983. 



50 



Safai, B. (with Myskowski, P. L, Dupont, B., and Pollack, M. S ), Association of HIA-DRS with mycosis 
lungoides. J. Invest. Dermatol. 80:395-397, 1983. 

Shen, F.-W. (with Michaelson, J., Boyse, E. A., Chorney, M., Flaherty, L, Fieissner, Hammerling, l)., 

Reinisch, C, and Rosenson, R.), The biochemical genetics of the Oa Tla region. Transplant Proc. 
15:2033-2038, 1983. 

Shen, F.-W. (with Yakura, H., Boiircet, E., and Boyse, E. A.), On the function of l.y-5 in the regulation of 
antigen-driven B cell differentiation. J. Exp. Med. 157:1077-1088, 1983. 

Stutman, O. (with Miller, R. A.), Limiting dilution analysis of T helper cell heterogeneity: a single class of 
T cell makes both IL-2 and lL-3. J. Immunol. 130:1749-1753, 1983. 

Stutman, O. (with Camaud, C, and Ishizaka, S. T.), Early loss of precursors of (TL and IL-2 producing 
cells in the development of neonatal tolerance to alloantigens. J. Immunol. 133:45-51, 1984. 

Tung, J. -S. (with Scheid, M. P., and Palladino, M. A.), DifiFerent forms of Ly-5 within the T-cell lineage. 
Immunogenet. 17:649-654, 1983- 

Wang, C. Y. (with Azzo, W., Al-Katib, A., Chiorazzi, N., and Knowles, D. M.), Preparation and characteri- 
zation of monoclonal antibodies recognizing three distinct dififerentiation antigens (BLl, BL2 and 
BL3) on human B lymphocytes. J. Immunol. 133:684-691, 1984. 

Wang, C. Y. (with Bushkin, Y., Chen, P.-D., Platsoucas, C. D., and Long, C), Preparation and characteriza- 
tion of monoclonal antibodies directed at epitopes of human IFN-y. Hybridoma 3:321-332, 1984. 



51 



Interdivisional Program in Molecular Biology 



Faculty 



Francis Barany 
Kenneth Berns 
Peter Besmer 
Moses V. Chao 



Elizabeth H. Lacy 
Kenneth J. Marians 
Peter W. Melera 
Norma Neff 
Paul V. O'Donnell 
Eric Falck-Pedersen 
Jeffery V. Ravetch 
Ora M. Rosen 
Nurul H. Sarkar 
Ganes C. Sen 
Michael B. Sheffery 
Paula Traktman 



Selina Chen-Kiang 
Nancy G. Famulari 



Erwin Fleissner 
Mark E. Furth 
Sohan L. Gupta 



William S. Hayward 
William HoUoman 
Jerard Hurwitz 



Robert M. Krug 

Research Activities 

Several of the Fields and Units of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences jointly 
offer an interdisciplinary program of graduate research training in the structure, 
function and regulation of genetic elements, including control of normal gene 
expression, oncogenes and oncogene expression, oncogenic viruses, nucleic acid 
replication and repair, and growth factors and their receptors. 

In the laboratories, the control of gene expression is studied in a variety of 
viral and cellular systems, in cell-free systems, in cell cuture, and in the intact 
organism. Influenza virus and adenovirus serve as models for the control mecha- 
nisms involved in the synthesis, processing and translation of UNA, both in the cell 
and in cell-free systems. Various eukaryotic virus expression vectors are being 
constructed for these studies. Virus-infected cells are also being employed for 
molecular studies of interferon action. Cells responsive to specific inducing agents 
are used to elucidate the regulation of gene transcription by peptide hormones, by 
interferon, and by chromatin structure. The gene amplification or rearrangement 
e\ents (rccjucntly obserxed in tumor cells reveal the profound effects of such DNA 
alterations on gene transcription. Mice carrying new genes introduced by injection 
of DNA into early embryos provide novel examples of tissue-specific control of 
gene expression. 

Research of the mechanism ol both prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replica- 
tion employs cell-free replication systems. Model systems have been developed to 
sludv the replication of SV iO, herpes-simplex, vaccinia and adenovirus as well as 
leading- and lagging strand DNA synthesis on the bacterial chromosome. ITiese 
studies hope to elucidate control elements and specific protein-nucleic acid inter- 
actions in\()l\ed in c ul<ar\()tic DNA replication. Related studies are being carried 



S2 



out on the enzymological mechanisms involved in the recombination of 
chromosomes. 

Much of the research on the control of cellular metabolism and growth 
focuses on crucial regulatory proteins involved in the transmission of signals at the 
cell membrane, including various cell surface receptors, protein kinases, and the 
calcium binding protein calmodulin. In addition to biochemical and physiological 
studies, substantial efifort is being made to isolate and determine the nucleotide 
sequences of the genes encoding these important proteins. 

The mechanism of action of viral and cellular genes directly implicated in 
neoplasia is under active investigation. Studies have shown that retroviruses in 
birds, rodents, and cats transduce a number of oncogenes encoding proteins that 
vary greatly in their cellular oncogenicity, leading to the development of specific 
cancers, such as lymphomas, thymomas and erythroleukemia. Activated oncogenes 
have also been identified in the DNA of animal and human tumors with no known 
viral etiology. The study of the mechanism of activation of these cellular genes and 
of their gene products may provide insight into the molecular basis of human 
cancer. 

Dr. Krugs research focuses on the unique interaction of influenza virus with 
its host cells as a model system for elucidating control mechanisms involved in the 
synthesis, processing, and translation of both viral and cellular messenger RNAs. 

Dr. Falck-Pedersen concentrates on developing an understanding of transcrip- 
tion in eucaryotic cells. In particular, a combined biochemical and molecular genet- 
ical approach is being used to analyze the termination of transcription by RNA 
polymerase II. 

Dr. Huruitz is conducting studies of prokaryotic and eukaryotic replication of 
DNA and RNA processing. These studies focus on the enzymes and enzymological 
mechanisms involved in these processes. 

Dr. Traktman's laboratory also studies viral DNA replication in eucar\x)tes. 
Both biochemistry and molecular genetics are employed to define the genes of 
vaccinia virus that are required for its replication. An in intro replication system is 
also being developed. 

A laboratory with related research interests, headed by />. Marians, focuses 
on studies of the enzymological mechanisms of DNA replication in prokarvotes. 
The use of in intro DNA replication systems composed of purified replication 
proteins enables detailed analyses of the interaction of the replication proteins 
with each other and with the DNA template. 

Another key cellular process that occurs on DNA is the exchange of genetic 
information through the process of recombination. Dr. Hollonian s laborator) 
studies the enzymological mechanisms involved in this complicated process. Model 
studies focus on the mechanism of synopsis and DNA strand exchange promoted 
by the rec 1 protein. 

The only families of linear DNA viruses that replicate in mammalian cell r.uclei 
are the adeno-associated virus, the adenoviais and heq')esvirus; the structure and 
function of one of these is the object of stud>' of />. /^cvv/.s ' laborator\'. Hiis vims 
was selected because it is thought to be highly amenable to detailed longitudinal 
investigation, since it readily establishes latent infections in continuous cell lines in 
culture derived from the normal host. A study of this \ inis may also ha\ e hearing 
on the molecular biolog) of cellular DNA replication and tran.scription. 



53 



Research on the mechanisms of DNA uptake and homologous integration in 
naturally transformable bacteria is the basis for studies of the mechanisms of 
genetic transfer by Dr. Barany. Future research in this laboratory will shift to trans- 
formation mechanisms in eukaryotic cells with a view to the eventual development 
of gene therapy. 

Elucidation of the mechanism of action of insulin and related growiih factors, 
leading to a detailed understanding of the receptor molecule as well as the mecha- 
nism(s) by which it transmits signals from the cell surface to its interior is the prin- 
cipal goal of Dr. Rosen s research. 

The gene for human ner\ e growth factor has been isolated by Dr. Chao's labo- 
raton-. Recombinant DNA technolog)' is being used to study the important struc- 
tural features of the gene and the molecular basis of differential receptor expres- 
sion during development. 

In a series of experiments in Z)r. Ravetch's laboratory, the molecular genetic 
analysis of cell surface receptor proteins is being conducted, aimed at defining 
their modulation, mechanism of signal transduction and developmental regulation 
by isolation and characterization of genes that code for proteins binding immuno- 
globulin (FC receptors), by studying the interaction of the malaria producing para- 
site with the erythrocyte, and by characterizing the activated macrophage 
phenotype. 

Several laboratories are intensely studying the development of leukemia in 
mice and humans. Dr. Fleissner^s laboratory focuses on the genetic systems impli- 
cated in this process. Lines of research include several investigations aimed at deter- 
mining the number and nature of the genetic steps involved in the derivation of 
malignant T-cells. Other studies involve collaborations with Drs. ODonnell, 
Hammerling, and Hoffman, focusing on the N-ras oncogene's effects on T-cells. A 
third group of studies deals with the correlations between specific structural 
features of murine leukemia virus env gene proteins and their functions. 

Dr. Famularfs research centers on studies of retrovirus- induced leukemo- 
genesis in the mouse using intrathymic injection of virus in order to develop 
thymomas, a model well suited for analysis of progression of target cells from 
normal to malignant phenotype. 

Dr. Haywards research objective is to elucidate the mechanisms by which 
viral and non-viral agents induce neoplastic disease through the use of three classes 
of avian retroviruses as model systems. 

Mutations affecting the structure and the control of expression of oncogenes 
contribute to carcinogenesis. Dr. Fiirth s laboratory^ is engaged in research on the 
structure and function of the ras oncogene proteins. Genetically distinct ras gener- 
ally are very similar, but differ dramatically in a small hypervariable region located 
near the carboxyi terminus. A major goal of the laboratory is to determine how this 
region contributes to the function of these proteins. A second area of study in the 
laboratory concerns growth factors that regulate the proliferation and differentia- 
tion of hematopoietic cells. 

(Airrent research objectives of Bestner s laboratory are to investigate the 
structure and function of the proto-oncogene KIT to investigate its role in 
neoplastic transformation; and to determine the basis of the differing neoplastic 
potential of the murine and feline ah/ viruses. 



54 



The creation of systems in the mouse for the study of the development of 1- 
cell leukemia is the major focus of Dr. O'Donnelfs laboratory. Efforts are directed 
at characterizing the sequence of events in what now appears to be a multistep 
process of virus-induced transformation and progression to frank leukemia. 

The study of biochemical mechanisms involved in the action of interferons to 
elucidate the early events involved in the interferons-mediated induction of specific 
cellular genes leading to the development of the antiviral state (and other biolog- 
ical effects), and the manner in which the expression of the cellular genes is regu- 
lated is of major importance in Dr. Gupta's laboratory. 

Studies of the mechanisms of action of interferons against vesicular stomatitis 
virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, and retroviruses representing three virus groups 
with completely different replication strategies are underwa\ in />. Sen's 
laboratory. 

Dr. Sarkafs laboratory conducts experiments aimed at obtaining a greater 
understanding of the relationships between murine mammary tumor virus infec- 
tion, host-virus interaction and mammary^ tumorigenesis in the mouse. 

The production and analysis of embryonic lethal mutations and the identifica- 
tion of DNA sequences involved in regulating the stage-specific and tissue-specific 
expression of genes during mammalian development are the foci of />. Lucy's 
research. In the future, her laboratory^ will attempt a similar study with embryonic 
and adult alpha-globin genes. She is working collaboratively with Dr. James 
Darnell's laboratory^ at Rockefeller University to generate lines of transgenic mice 
carrying genes specifcally transcribed in liver to explore the sequence require- 
ments of this class of genes for correct developmental expression and in order to 
isolate mutations which disrupt embryogenesis in the mouse. 

Research in Dr. Sheffery's laboratory is directed at understanding how proteins 
and DNA interact to form structures that influence gene transcription. Particular 
effort is dem oted to understanding tissue-specific gene expression. 

Dr. Meleru's laboratory is involved in three major research projects: the first 
attempts to unravel the response of Chinese hamster lung cells (CHL) to antilblate 
challenge via the overproduction of two different molecular weight forms of the 
target enzy me dihydrofolate reductase; the second seeks to understand the role of 
gene amplification in the establishment of the multidrug- resistant phenotype 
displayed by CHL cells selected with vincristine; and the third is a study of DNA 
sequence amplification in human cancer, particularly neuroblastoma. 

Current work in Dr. Neffs laboratory centers on the regulation of gene expres- 
sion during the cell cycle of the simple eukaryotic baker's yeast, Succhuroniyccs 
cereidsiae, with calcium and calmodulin used as signal molecules during the cell 
cycle. 

Recent Publications 

Besmcr, F. (with Hardy, W . D. jr., /iickcrman, H. K., Ikrgold, P . I.cckrniaii. 1. , and Snyder. H \\ jr ). 
The Hardy-Ziickcrnian 2-FcS\ . a new feline retrovirus with oncogene homology to Ahelson 
MuLV. Nature 3().-\:H25-828, 1983. 

Besmcr, P. (with Snyder, H. W. Jr., Murphy. J. H.. Hardy. VC . O. Jr., and Parodi. A. ). Ilie Pannli Irgens 
feline sarcoma virus and simian .sarcoma \inis have homologous oncogenes, but in diftereni 
contexts of the viral genomes. J. Virol. 46:606-613, 1983 



Chen-Kiang, S. (with Madcrious, A ), Pausing and premature termination of human RNA polymerase II 
during transaction of adenovirus in invo and in intro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 1984, in press. 



Chen-Kiang, S. (with Mok, M., and Maderious, A.), Premature termination by human RNA polymerease II 
occurs temporally in the adenovirus major late transcriptional unit. Mol. Cell. Biol., 1984, in 
press. 

Falck-Pederson, E. (with Citron B., Salditt-GeogieflF, M., and Darnell, J. E. Jr.), Transcription termination 
occurs within a 1000 base pairregion downstream from the poly A site of the mouse B-globin 
gene. Nucleic Acids Research, 12, 22:8723-8731, 1984. 

Falck-Pederson, E. (with Logan, J., Shenk, T., and Darnell, J. D. Jr.), Transcription termination within the 
Ela gene of Adenovirus induced by inhibition of the Mouse B-Major globin terminator element. 
Cell 40, 4:897-905, 1985. 

Famulari, N. G. (with Cieplensk\', D. ), A time-course study of MuLV env gene expression in the AKR 
thxTnus: qualitative and quantitative analysis of ecotropic and recombinant virus gene products. 
Virolog} 132:282-291, 1984. 

Famulari, N. G., Murine leukemia vimses with recombinant env genes: A discussion of their role in leuke- 
mogenesis. J. Cur. Top. in Microbio. and Immu. 130:75-108, 1983. 

Fleissner, E. (with Boccara, M., Souyri, M., Magarian, C, and Stavnezer, E ), Evidence for a new form of 
retroviral env transcript in leukemic and normal mouse lymphoid cells. J. Virol. 48:102-109, 
1983. 

Fleissner, E. (with Souyri, M. ), Identification by transfection of transforming sequences in DNA of 
human T-cell leukemias. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 80:6676-6679, 1983. 

Furth, M. (with Fasano, O., Aldrich, T., Tamanoi, F., Taparowsk)', E., and Wigler, M. ), Analysis of the trans- 
forming potential of the human H-ras gene by random mutagenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 
81:4008-4012, 1984. 

Gupta. S. I., (with Raziuddin, A., and Sarkar, F. H.), Interferon receptors on human cells. In: The Biology 
of the Interferon System. E. DeMaeycr, and H. Schellekens, eds. Amsterdam:Elsevier, pp. 175-181, 
1983. 

Hardy. V( . D. Jr., A new package for an old oncogene. Nature 308:775, 1984. 

Hardy, W. D. Jr. (with Besmer, P., Zuckerman, E. E., Bergold, P., Lederman, L., and Snyder, H. W. Jr.), 

ITie Hard) Zuckerman 2-FeSV, a new feline retrovirus and oncogene homology' to Abelson-MuLV. 
Nature 3()3:825-828, 1983. 

Ha\A\ard. VC . S. ( with Jhanwar, S. C, Neel, B. (i., and Chaganti, R. S. K.), Localization of c-m^- oncogene 
family on human germ-line chromosomes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 80:4794-4797, 1983. 

Ha\Avard, W. S. (with Sailo, H.. Hayday, A. C, Wiman, K., and Tonegawa, S.), Activation of the c-w)'C 
gene by translocation: a model for translocational control. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 80:7476-7480, 
1983 

Hollonian, >X K (with Kjiiiec, E. B. ), Synapsis Prompted by Ustilago Rec 1 Protein. Cell 36:593-'>98, 
198 4 

Hollonian, NX. K. (with Kmiec, i: B., and Angelides, K. J ), Left-Handed DNA and the Synaptic Pairing 
Reaction Promoted by I'stilago Rec 1 Protein. Cell 40:139 1 o. 198S. 

Hiirwit/, J (with Nagata, K.. and Guggcnheimer, R. A.). Specific binding of a cellular DNA replication 

protein to the origin of replication of adenovirus DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 80:6177-6181. 1983. 

Hurw it/ I ( with Guggcnheimer, R A , Stillman, B. W., Nagata, K., and Tamanoi, F. ). DNA sequences 
rec|uired for the in \ itro replication of adenoNirus DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81:3069-3073, 
1 9K » 

Krug. K M (with Braam J . and I Imanaen, I ), Mokcular model of eucar>()tic transcription complex: 
functions and movements of inllueii/a P proteins during cajiped RNA primed transcription, (x ll 
3 1:609 618, 1983 

Krug. R M ( u itli I Imanen, I , and Broni, B ), Intlulen/a \ irus temperature sensitive cap (m"'GpppNm )- 
(Ic pt iidc ni (. luloiuu k asi- I \ irol iSii" 3^. 1983 



56 



Lacy, E. (with Roberts, S., Evans, E. P., Burtcnshaw, M. D., and Costantini, F. ), A foreign B-globin gene in 
transgenic mice: Integration at abnormal chromosomal positions and expression in inappropriate 
tissues. Cell 34:343-358, 1983. 

Marians, K. J., (with Cireenbaum, J. H. ). ITie interaction Escherichia colt replication factor Y with 
complementar)' strand origins of DNA replication. J. Biol. Chem. 259:2594-2601, 1984 

Marians, K. J. (with Abar/ua,F. ), Enzymatic techniques for the isolation of random single-base substitu- 
tions in vitro at high frequency. Froc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81:2030 2034, 1984. 

Melera, F. W. (with Biedler, J.. Chang, T-I)., Feterson, R. H. F., Myers, M. B., and Spengler, A. B. ), (,ene 

amplification and phenotypic instability in drug-resistant and revertant cells In: Rational Basis for 
Chemotherapy. B. A. Chabner, ed.. New York: A. R. I.i.ss 71-92, 1983. 

Melera, F. W. (with Montgomery, K. T., Biedler, J. L., and Spengler, B. A.), Specific DNA sequence ampli 
fication in human neuroblastoma cells. Froc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 80:5724-5728, 1983. 

Ravetch. J. V. (with Korsmeyer, S. j., Arnold, A, Bakhshi, A., Siebenlist, II., Hieter, F. A., Sharrow, S. ()., 
I.ebien, T. W., Kersey, J. H., Foplack, D. G., Leder, F., and Waldmann, T. A.), Immunoglobulin 
gene rearrangement and cell surface antigen expression in acute lymphocytic leukemias of T-cell 
and B-cell precursor origins. J. CWn. Invest. 71:301-313, 1983. 

Rosen, O. M. (with Herrera, R. Olovve, Y., Fetruzzelli, L M., and Cobb, M. H.), Fhosphorylation activates 
the insulin receptor tyrosine protein kin.ise. Froc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 80:3237-3240, 1983. 

Rosen, C). M. (with Fetruzzelli, L., and Herrera, R. ), Insulin receptor is an insulin-dependent tyrosine 
protein kinase: Copurification of insulin-binding activity and protein kinase activity to homoge- 
neity from human placenta. Froc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81:3327-3331, 1984. 

Sarkar, N. H. (with Racevskis, J. ), Expression and disposition of the murine tumor virus (MuM'lY) enve- 
lope gene products by murine mammary tumor cells. Virology 126:279-300, 1983. 

Sarkar, N. H. (with Telang, N. T.), Long-term survival of adult mouse mammary glands in culture and 
their response to a retinoid. Cancer Res. 43:4891-4900, 1983. 

Sen, G. C. (with Herz, R. E.), Diflferential antiviral effects of interferon in three murine cell lines"'j. Virol. 
45:1017-1027, 1983. 

Sen, G. C]. (with Finter, A.), Interferon-mediated inhibition of production of Gazdar murine sarcoma 
virus, a setrovirus lacking env proteins and containing an uncleaved gag precursor. Virology 
26:403-407, 1983. 

SheflFery, M. (with Salditt-Georgieff, M., Krauter, K., Darnell, J. E.,Jr., Rifkind, R. A., and Marks, F. A.), 
Induced transcrption of the mouse B-globin transcription unit in enthroleukemia cells: Time 
course of induction and changes in chromatin structure. J. Mol. Biol. 172:437-450, 1984. 

Sheflfcry, M. (with Marks, P. A., and Rifkind, R. A.), Gene expression in murine erythroleukemia cells: 

Transcriptional control and chromatin structure of the ai-globin gene. J. Mol. Biol. 172:4 1'7-436, 
1984. 

Traktman, P. (with Sridhar, P., Condit, R. C, and Roberts, B. E. ), Transcriptional mapping of the DNA 
polymerase gene of vaccinia \irus. J. Virology 49: 125-131, 1 984. 



57 



-if 



Requirements and Course 
Offerings 




59 




60 



Admission 

Applications 

For admission to the Graduate School of Medical Sciences an applicant must ( 1 ) have a 
baccalaureate degree or the equivalent from a college or university of recognized standing, 
(2) have adequate preparation in the chosen field of study, and (3) show promise of ability 
to pursue advanced study and research, as judged by his or her previous record. 

Inquiries about graduate study should be addressed to the Associate Dean of the (irad- 
uate School of Medical Sciences, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 1002 1 or to the Asso- 
ciate Director of the Sloan-Kettering Division, 1 275 York Avenue, New York, N\' 1 002 1 . 

Candidates may be admitted in September, Februar)', or July, although places in the grad- 
uate program for Februan' and July may not be available because of prior commitments to 
applicants for September admission. Applicants for February or July admission should corre- 
spond directly with the respective Field Director in the Medical (-oUege Division or the Asso- 
ciate Director of the Sloan-Kettering Division regarding the availabilit> of places. 

Application material must be completed and returned to the Office of the Dean 
together with ( 1 ) official transcripts of records from all colleges and universities attended, 
(2) a statement of purpose of graduate study, and (3) two letters of recommendation from 
individuals in academic positions who know the applicant professionally. In addition, scores 
from the Graduate Record Examinations are usually required to aid in the evaluation of an 
applicant. Application for taking the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE's), the Aptitude 
(Verbal, Quantitative, and Analytical) Test and the Advanced Test, must be made directly to 
the 

Educational Testing Service 
Graduate Record Examinations 
Box 955 

Princeton, NJ 08541 * 

The proper Institution Code Number to use in your GRE application for the Cornell 
University Graduate School of Medical Sciences (New York Citv ) is R 2119-6. 

Applications for September or July admission and all credentials, including official tran- 
scripts of records from all colleges and universities attended, must be received by the dead- 
line date of Februarv' 1. 

Applications and credentials for February admission must be received by November 1. 

Application fee. A nonrefundable charge of $35 is made for filing an application for 
admission. 

The completed application and all supporting documents are initially screened by the 
credentials committee of the program to which the student is applying. Applicants who are 
considered potentially acceptable are usually called for a personal interview . At the time of 
interview, after discussing his or her interests with the members of the Field or I nit, the 
applicant may tentatively select a major sponsor. If accepted by the Field or I nit, an applica- 
tion is forwarded to the Interdivisional Credentials Committee for review and then to the 
Dean for final decision. A student is formally notified of acceptance for study in the Ciraduate 
School of Medical Sciences by a letter from the Dean. An applicant accepted for admission is 
requested to inform the Graduate School of Medical Sciences of her or his plan to either 
accept or refuse the offer of admission within one month after the Dean's acceptance letter 
has been received. 

It is the policy of Cornell Universitv' to actively support equalitv of educational ana 
employment opportunity . No person shall be denied admission to any educational program 
or activity or be denied employment on the basis of any legally prohibited discrimination 
involving, but not limited to, such factors as race, color, creed, religion, national or ethnic 
origin, sex, age. or handicap. Tlie University is committed to the maintenance of affirmative 
action programs which will assure the continuation of such equality of opportunity . 

Admission policies are also in conformity with the policy of New ^ ork Stale in regard to 
the American ideal of equality of opportunity its embodied in the Education Practices Act. 



61 



Categories 

An applicant is accepted by the Graduate School of Medical Sciences ( 1 ) as a degree candi- 
date for the M.S. or Ph.D., or (2) as a provisional candidate. 

Provisional candidacy provides opportunity for a prospective degree candidate, w^hose 
educational preparation is difficult to evaluate, to begin graduate studies. On the basis of the 
record of accomplishment in the first half of the academic year, the adviser or temporary 
Special Committee of a provisional candidate may recommend to the Dean that ( 1 ) provi- 
sional candidacy be changed to degree candidacy, ( 2 ) provisional candidacy be continued 
for the remainder of the academic year, or ( 3 ) provisional candidacy be terminated. A 
maximum of one academic year in the status of provisional candidacy is permitted and 
credit of a maximum of one residence unit may be allowed on petition, provided there is 
convincing evidence that performance has been of the same quality as that required of 
degree candidates. 

Special Students 

Special students are students who are not degree candidates in either the Graduate School 
of Medical Sciences or the Medical College and who are given permission by the respective 
dean to take courses at either school. Special students must be degree candidates at other 
institutions and the courses taken at Cornell must be essential to their degree programs and 
are not offered by the institutions at which they are matriculated as degree candidates as 
certified by the institutions. Enrollment as a special student is not intended as preparation 
for admission to degree programs at Cornell or elsewhere. 

In the case of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences, special students are accepted 
only with the approval of the appropriate Field Director in the Medical College Division or 
of the appropriate Chairperson in the Sloan-Kettering Division. Special students must demon- 
strate special qualifications in terms of preparation and ability. They must register with the 
Graduate School of Medical Sciences or in the Medical College and must pay all tuition and 
fees before being permitted to attend lectures or laboratory sessions. Tuition is computed 
on the basis of the ratio of course hours taken to the total hours of instruction for the 
academic year (33 weeks of 40 hours). There is a registration fee of $35. 

Degree Requirements 

Major and Minor Fields* 

A candidate for the degree of Master of Science is required to register for study in one major 
and one minor field. Each field decides whether the Special Committee of a candidate for 
the Ph.D. degree must have two or three fields represented. Accordingly, a candidate for the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy is required to register for study in one major and one or two 
minor fields. At least one of the minors must be outside the area of the major field. 

The Special Committee 

The general degree requirements of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences are minimal in 
order to give maximum fiexibility in choosing a desirable program of study, llie student's 
program is determined with the aid and direction of a Special (.ommittee, consisting of at 
least three faculty members chosen by the student from those fields that best fit his or her 
areas of interest. Satisfactory- progress toward a degree is judged by the committee rather 
than by arbitrary standards imposed by the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. Iliere are 



'Areas of conccniration towards a degree at the- (.ornell I 'niversity draduate- School of Medical Seienees arc referred to 
as fields in the- Medical Colle-gc- Division and as I'nHs in the- Sloan Ketterinj; Division Both these- terms, a.s well as thc 
Inte-rdivisional Program in Mokt ular Hiolog>, arc intended to be t ()\c ri cl hy the te rm field \n this and sulise-t|ue-nl 
sections 



62 



no regulations of the Faeulty of the Ciraduate School of Medical Sciences governing the 
specific content of instruction, courses, or grades to which the Special (Committee must 
subscribe, except those imposed by the fields. ITie committee is primarily responsible for 
the candidate's development as an independent scholar and scientist. 

No later than four weeks after enrollment, a candidate must file a statement of the 
major and minor fields elected for study, after which the student must choose faculty 
members to represent the fields and to serve on a Special (",()mmittee. The major sponsor 
usually advises the student concerning the other selections and chairs the committee. At 
least one member of the committee must represent a field different from the candidate's 
major field. Members may agree to serve temporarily during the candidate's first year of resi- 
dence until the candidate has had the opportunity to become acquainted with areas of 
research in the fields of his or her choice. On completion of this year of residence, a perma- 
nent Special Committee will be formed, the membership of which can be changed with 
agreement of all members of the old and newly formed committees and the approv al of the 
Dean. The members of the Special Committee decide on the student's program of study and 
research, and judge whether progress toward a degree is satisfactory . After consulting the 
other members, the chairperson of the Special Committee prepares term reports on the 
candidate for submission to the Dean. The members of the committee serve on all the candi- 
date's examining committees and they approve his or her thesis. 

Registration and Course Grades 

No student in the Graduate School of Medical Sciences may double-register for an advanced 
general or professional degree with any other school or college except the (>ornell I niver- 
sity Medical College. 

At the beginning of each term, students are required to register with the Office of the 
Graduate School of Medical Sciences and to file a registration of courses form indicating all 
courses they will take. A fee of $10 is charged for late registration. 

At the beginning of each course in which the student is enrolling, the student will 
complete a separate course registration form for the instmctor. All courses for whiL.i the 
student registers for credit will be entered in the official record. Grades of graduate students 
are reported as: Excellent (E), Satisfactory (S), Unsatisfactory (U), Incomplete (I), Absent 
(Abs.), or Unofficially Withdrawn (W). A grade of Incomplete or Absent cannot be changed 
later than one term following the one in which the course was taken. 

Registration for the summer is required of graduate students who will be engaged in 
research. 

Residence 

The Faculty of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences regards study in residence as essen- 
tial. Each candidate for an advanced general degree is expected to complete the residence 
requirements with reasonable continuity. A student must register each term from the time 
of his or her first registration in the Graduate School of Medical Sciences until the student 
either withdraws or completes a degree (unless a leave of absence has been granted). Full- 
time study for one-half academic year with satisfactory accomplishment constitutes one resi- 
dence unit. Two units of residence are the minimal requirement for the master's degree and 
six units are the minimum for the doctoral degree. However, the lime necessary to obtain 
the degree generally exceeds the minimal requirements. A candidate for the Ph.D. degree 
must spend two of the last four units of required residence in successive terms on the New- 
York City or the Ithaca campus of Cornell I niversity . No more than seven y ears may inter- 
vene between the time of first registration and the completion of all requirements for the 
doctoral degree. A student must complete all requirements for the master's degree in four 
years. 

Part-time graduate study, if it is necessitated by oft-campus employ ment noncontrihu- 
tory to the major field of study, is not encouraged. Requests for part time study must be 
reviewed by the Executive (x)mmittee. If permission is granted for part-time study , the 
student must be in residence at least half-time. 



63 



The legislation with respect to eligibility of part-time students for residence units is as 
follows: 



Employment 


Residence Units Allowable Per Half Academic Year 


Total 


Contributory in 


Noncontributory; Off Campus 


LIULK rJUUrb 


major field; 


on campus 


per week 


on campus 




0-10 hours 
11-20 hours 
21-30 hours 


1 unit 
1 unit 

V4 unit (teaching) 
¥4-1 unit (research)* 


1 unit y4 unit 
¥4 unit 5/4 unit 
Vi unit — 



'Time spent assisting in research, if it is contributory to the major field of study, shall be credited toward allowance of 
a full residence unit. 



Transfer of Residence Credit 

No residence credit will be granted for study outside the Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences to fulfill the requirements of the M.S. degree. No commitment can be made about 
granting residence credit toward the Ph.D. requirements for previous study in another grad- 
uate school until after the candidate has entered into residence at the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences. At that time, the student's Special Committee may recommend acceptance 
of study outside the Graduate School of Medical Sciences to the Executive Committee, 
which will determine the number of residence units to be awarded. No credit can be trans- 
ferred for study undertaken as an undergraduate or as a special student even in courses 
designed for graduate students. 

A student who has satisfactorily completed two or more academic years of study toward 
the degree of M.D. at the Cornell University Medical College, or another accredited medical 
school in the United States with a curriculum equivalent to that of the Cornell University 
Medical College, may transfer a maximum of two units of residence credit after passing an 
evaluation examination administered by a committee appointed by the Executive Committee 
of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. 

Summer Research 

Registration is required for the summer research term whether or not this effort will be 
credited toward residence unit accumulation. Students registered for summer research pay 
prorated tuition only if they are obtaining residence credit. However, no degree candidate is 
eligible for more than two residence units in any period of twelve consecutive months. 

Study In Absentia 

A candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy may petition for permission to earn resi- 
dence units for study away from Cornell University' while regularly registered in the Grad- 
uate School of Medical Sciences. A candidate to whom this privilege has been granted, must 
register as a Candidate in absentia and may work temporarily under the immediate supervi- 
sion of an individual designated by his or her Special Committee although the candidate's 
program will continue to be directed by the Committee. For study in absentia, not more 
than two residence units may be earned toward fulfillment of the minimal residence require- 
ments for the Ph.D. degree. 

Leave of Absence 

A candidate who finds it necessar\' to intermpt the continuity of his or her residence must 
petition the Dean for an official leave of absence. Iliis written petition must specify the term 



64 



of absence, state the reason for the requested leave of absence, and be appnn ed b\ the 
student's Special Committee. 

A student who will not be in residence but will return to the (iraduate School of 
Medical Sciences to present and defend a thesis at the final examination, having completed 
all requirements for a degree except for the final examination, must petition for a leave of 
absence. 

Examinations 

Three examinations are required by the Faculty of the Ciraduate School of Medical Sciences: 
( 1 ) Final Examination for the M.S. degree, (2) Examination for Admission to Doctoral Candi- 
dacy, and (3) Final Examination for the Ph.D. degree. Examinations are administered by an 
Examining Committee consisting of a chairperson appointed by the Dean, the members of 
the candidate's Special (x)mmittee, and, in the case of the Admission to Doctoral Candidacy 
Examination, three additional members selected from the Faculty of the (iraduate School of 
Medical Sciences and/or of other institutions. In addition to these examinations, the candi- 
date's major field may require a qualifying examination as part of its evaluation of the candi- 
date after tw o units of residence have been completed. 

For the M.S. degree: The Final Examination may be oral or both oral and written. 

For the Ph.D. degree: The Admission to Doctoral Candidao' Examination is both oral 
and written and certifies that the student is eligible to present a thesis to the Facult> of the 
Graduate School of Medical Sciences. The examination should be taken after course work is 
largely finished but before significant thesis research has begun. Accordingly, the usual exam- 
ination time will be at the end of the second year of residence. The examination may not be 
taken until tw o units of residence credit have been accumulated and a minimum of two 
units of residence credit is required after passing this examination before the final examina- 
tion can be schedvled. The final examination for the Ph.D. degree is an oral defense of the 
candidate's thesis. It must be passed within four years after completion of the required resi- 
dence units, or w ithin seven years from the date of first registration, whichever is ; urlier. 

Foreign Language Requirements 

Each fieldvof study has its own foreign language requirements. The student's Special 
Committee may require knowledge of foreign languages beyond the requirements of the 
fields listed in this Announcement. 

Arrangements for a foreign language examination will be made on application to the 
Office of the Dean. As an alternative to this exiimination, the candidate ma\ demonstrate 
proficiencT by having passed the reading part of the language qualification tests administered 
by the College Entrance Examination Board. 

Thesis 

A principal requirement for both the M.S. and the Ph.D. degrees is the presentation of a 
thesis constituting an imaginative contribution to knowledge. Ordinarily, the thesis is 
written on a research topic in the candidate's major field of study, under the direction of the 
chairperson of his or her Special (-ommittee. Hie faculty requires that the Ph.D. thesis be 
published in abstract and be recorded on microfilm. 



Tuition and Fees 
Tuition 

Tuition for a student regularly matriculated in the (iraduate School of .Medical -Viences is 
S10,2"'0 for the academic year 198S-8(-> and is pa\ able in two equal part,^. the first of w hich 
is due at initial registration. Tuition includes fees for matriculation, hospitalization insur- 
ance, graduation, and miscellaneous thesis expen.ses. 



65 



For students who ( 1 ) have been in continuous residence at Cornell in the same 
doctoral program and have accumulated four units of residence credit, ( 2 ) have passed their 
Admission to Doctoral Candidacy Examination, and ( 3 ) are not taking courses in the 
Medical College curriculum, a reduced charge of SI 800 per annum ($900 per semester) 
will be made for tuition and fees for the terms subsequent to the Admission to Doctoral 
Candidacy Examination. For those students who are accepted in the Ph.D.-M.D. Program 
(sec p. 4) and will continue to take courses in the medical curriculum, an additional tuition 
charge, based on the Medical College tuition ($14,550 per annum), will be made for the 
medical course hours taken. 

A student who is to receive partial residence credit (see p. 63) because of employment 
should apply for proration of tuition on forms obtainable at the Office of the Dean. Proration 
of tuition does not apply to the special reduced tuition of $900 per semester. 

Other Fees 

In Absentia A student registered in absentia pays a fee of $200 each term and may continue 
hospitalization insurance by payment of the annual premium directly to the Student 
Accoimting Office. If students in absentia take advantage of local privileges, such as the use 
of the librarv', desk space. Student Health Service, and Cornell housing, the fee is $400 per 
semester. The latter fee also covers hospitalization insurance. 

Leave of Absence Students on leave of absence will be required to pay an active-file fee of 
S200 for each semester, up to a maximum of six semesters, during which they are not regis- 
tered with the Graduate School. This fee will not be subject to finance charges but must be 
paid before the student can receive an advanced degree. Petition for waiver of this fee will 
be considered for students who have not completed the required number of residence units. 

Candidate for Degree Only A graduate student who has previously fulfilled all other 
degree requirements, who has been granted a leave of absence, and then returns to the Grad- 
uate School of Medical Sciences to present a thesis and to take the final examination must 
register as a Candidate for Degree Only and pay a fee of $35. 

Any indiindual who owes money to the University will not be allowed to register or 
reregister in the Unii>ersity, receive a transcript of his or her record, have his or her 
academic credits certified, be granted a leave of absence, or have a degree conferred. 

The amount, time, and manner of payment of tuition, fees, or other charges may be 
changed at any time without notice. 

Refunds 

Part of the personally paid tuition will be refunded if the student obtains official certification 
of lea\ c of absence or withdrawal from the Graduate School of Medical Sciences during the 
semester. Students who terminate their registration during a regular term in this manner 
will be charged tuition from the registration day to the efiective date of the certificate as 
follows: first week, 10 percent; second week, 20 percent; third week, 30 percent; fourth 
week, 40 percent; fifth week, 60 percent; sixth week, 80 percent; seventh week, 100 
percent. No charge will be made if the effective date of leave or withdrawal is within the 
first six days of the term, including regi.stration day. 

Financial Assistance 

All apjilicaiits to the Graduate School are requested to submit a Graduate and Professional 
.School I inancial Aid Scr\ ice (GAPSI AS) form pros iding an estimate of financial need. The 
information will be used in two ways: number of students w ith documentable need will 
allow the I ni\ersit\ to obtain maximum federal funding for loans and work-stud} purposes, 
and the spe cific need of an applicant may be used to determine that individual's graduate 
support Please obtain the necessarv form, available at your college or universit> financial aid 
office and from the Kducational Testing Service I ile the form with the Iklucational Testing 



66 



Service, Box 2614, Princeton, New Jersey ()8S4l, and reciiiest that the information he sent to 
Cornell-Code 2267. 

Financial assistance is availahle to qualified applicants. Indi\ idiial fields may offer predoc 
toral research fellowships, research assistantships, or teaching assistantships. niese positions 
may provide a stipend in addition to tuition. Information about these positions ma\ he 
obtained directly from the Field or Unit at the time of application. 

Nationwide competitive predoctoral fellowships are available from the National Science 
Foundation and the National Research (Council. Information about these fellowships should 
be requested directly from the appropriate governmental agenc> . 

New York vState residents are eligible for several predoctoral fellowships and the Tuition 
Assistance Program, which assists in tuition payments. Application forms may be obtained 
from the New York Higher Education Services C.orporation, Student Financial Aid vSection, 
Tower Building, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12255. 

Several loan programs are available to graduate students. Under these programs, repay- 
ment of the principal amount of the loan together with the interest on the loan may be 
deferred until iifter graduation. CA)mplete information regarding loan programs may be 
obtained from the Graduate School Office. 

Opportunit}' for part-time employment is often available in departmental research proj- 
ects or other activities. Applications should be made directly to individual departments. 

The Graduate School of Medical Sciences participates in the Work-Stud\ Program of 
(>ornell University which provides a significant salary contribution for qualified employed 
students. 

Scholarships and Fellowships 

Full fellowships are provided for graduate students by both the Medical College and Sloan- 
Kettering Divisions of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. Recipients of this award 
become Ph.D. Fellows and will receive a full tuition scholarship and a stipend covering living 
expenses. 

In addition, a number of tuition scholarships are available for students in the Medical 
College Division who are not covered by one of the above fellowships. This scholarship fund 
is administ*.'Ted by the Office of the Dean of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. 

The Vincent Astor Scholarship Fund. Funds for tuition assistance are also derived from 
the income from a generous gift by the Vincent Astor Foundation to the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences and to the Medical College. Allocation of these ftinds for graduate student 
tuition assistance is made at the discretion of the Dean of the Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences. 

Recipient of a Vincent Astor Scholarship in 1984-85 was Amita Sehgal. 

The Frank R. and Blanche A. Mowrer Memorial Fund. l imited financial assistance is 
available from the income of this ftmd to one student per year enrolled in the Ph.D. M l), or 
M.D.-Ph.D. program. 

Awards and Prizes 

The Frank Lappin Horsfall Jr. Award is endowed by ftinds pnn ided in memor) of Dr. 
Horsfall by his many friends and family. It is continued evidence of his concern for students 
manifest during his directorship of the Sloan-Kettering Division. 

The award is made annually to a student of the Sloan-Kettering Dix ision, who in the 
opinion of the (.ommittee of the Faculrv' of the Sloan-Kettering Di\ ision. has been most 
distinguished, especially in the Admission to Doctoral (.andidacy l-xamination. 

Recipient of the award in 1985 w as Bruce F. (Murman. 

The Julian R. Rachele Prize. The income of a fund established b\ Dr Julian R. R.ichele, 
former Dean of the (.ornell University- Graduate School of Medical Sciences, proN ides lor an 



67 



annual prize to be awarded to a candidate for the Ph.D. degree for a research paper of which 
the candidate is the sole or the senior author. 

Recipient of the prize in 1985 was Richard W. Michitsch. 

The Vincent duVigneaud Prizes for the presentation of outstanding papers by students of 
the Cornell University' Graduate School of Medical Sciences at the Annual Vincent duVig- 
neaud Memorial Research Symposium. 

Recipients of these awards in 1985 were Julia N. Heinrich, Deborah L. Jenkins, Luyuan 
Li, and Donna A. Robertson. 

The Thesis Prizes are awarded to students of the Medical College Division who have 
presented an outstanding thesis during the academic year. 

Recipients of these prizes in 1984-85 were Vivian R. Albert and Fernando de C. Reinach. 

Student Health Services 

The Student Health Flan of Cornell University Medical College provides hospitalization and 
major medical insurance for all registered graduate students. In addition, the Plan provides 
for ambulatory care at the Personnel Health Service of The New York Hospital-Cornell 
Medical Center. Physicians at the Health Service will refer students who require specialized 
care to clinics of the Hospital and to attending physicians of the staff. 

The cost of medical services provided by the Plan are included in the tuition and fee 
structure announced by the Graduate School of Medical Sciences each academic year. 
Students will be issued Plan membership cards and will receive courtesy privileges at The 
New York Hospital Pharmacy. 

Entering students are requested to have a physical examination, chest X-ray and labora- 
tory tests performed by their personal physicians prior to matriculation. The hours of the 
Personnel Health Service and a complete statement of Plan benefits will be provided to each 
graduate student. 

It is recommended that students purchase insurance coverage for eligible dependents 
who do not have other insurance available to them. Insured dependents are not eligible for 
care at the Personnel Health Service but they will be referred to appropriate members of the 
Hospital staff for medical treatment. 

A student studying in absentia may continue hospitalization insurance by payment of 
the annual fees directly to the Student Accounting Office. 

A student on leave of absence is not eligible to receive student health benefits. 

Residence Halls 

F. W. Olin Hall, a student residence, is at 445 East Sixty-ninth Street directly across from 
the Medical College entrance on York Avenue. Olin Hall contains a gymnasium, lounges, and 
245 residence rooms. Each residence room is a single bedroom-study, but since two rooms 
share a connecting bath, they may be used as a suite for two students. The rooms are 
completely furnished. ITie student housing fee is $188 per month. 

Livingston Farrand Apartments, also located on East Sixty-ninth Street, just beyond Olin 
Hall, have furnished apartments of 1 '/j, 2, 3, and 4 rooms. Cooking facilities are provided in 
these apartiiicnts. Housing fees range from $24()-S442 per month (utilities not included). 
Apartments in these facilities are available to married and upper-class students. 

Jacob S. I^sdon House, an apartment residence, is located at 420 East Seventieth Street. 
Hiis building contains studio, one-bedroom, and two-bedroom apartments and two squash 
courts. Apartments are fully furnished, and housing fees range from $4()6-$744 per month 
including utilities. Single, first year students cannot be accommodated in this building. 

Ihe fees listed ahorv nuiy he chan\^c(i at any time icithoat previous notice. 



68 



special Programs 



Application to the Medical Scientist Training Program 
(M.D.-Ph.D.) 

Successful applicants must demonstrate a strong undergraduate science preparation, and an 
early commitment to a career combining both clinical and laboratory research. Iliey must 
simultaneously satisfv' the separate requirements for admission to (Cornell University Medical 
College and to the Divisions of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. 

Applications must show whether admission is sought to the M.I). -Ph.D. program of the 
Medical College Division, the Sloan-Kettering Division, or both (see p. 3 for a description of 
the programs). Only one set of documents is required for applications to either or both 
programs. All documents must be forwarded to the Office of Admissions, Cornell Ihiiversitv 
Medical College, 445 East 69th Street, New York, 10021. (Telephone 2 1 2, 472-5673 ). 

The following items are required, by November 30, for an application to be considered 
complete: 

1. AMCAS application. (The personal data and academic record presented in this applica- 
tion are suitable for evaluation by both the medical and graduate schools. ) 

2. Supplemental Infomuition Form. This form will be supplied when further information is 
requested. 

3. Test Scores. MCAT scores are required; GRE scores are optional. If the GRE is taken, 
please instruct the Educational Testing Service to forw ard your scores. 

4. Personal statement. A summarv' of the applicant's background, interests, and reasons for 
pursuing the combined program. 

5. Letters of Recommendiition. 

a. Evaluation by the pre-medical advisory committee or two letters from members of the 
undergraduate science facult}' addressing themselves to the applicant's suitability for a 
career in medicine. 

b. Evaluations by at least two faculty' members addressing themselves to the ap[5^lcant's 
research potential. 

6. Application Fee. After the AMCAS application is received, a check for S45 is requested to 
cover th*/ application processing fee. 

After screening, selected applicants to the program will be invited to visit the Cornell 
Medical Center and meet with members of the facultv of the medical and graduate 
programs. These interview visits will be coordinated by the Medical College Admissions 
Office. 

Application to the Ph.D.-M.D. Program 

Applications to this program (see p. 4 for description) are ordinarilv made after the comple- 
tion of the first year of study in the (iraduate School of Medical Sciences, although more 
advanced students may be considered. The deadline for application is Februarv 1. 

To apply, the student must submit to the Office of the Dean of the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences: 

1. A completed application for admission with advanced standing to Cornell University 
Medical College (obtainable from the Medical (College Admissions Oftlce). 

2. A plan of graduate study incoq")orating all required course work of the first two years of 
the Medical (x)llege curriculum and endorsed by the student's Special (Committee. 

3. Evidence of successful completion of at least two major medical school basic science 
courses (anatomical sciences, biochemistrv. microbiologv', pathologv. pharmacologv . 
physiologv). 

4. Two letters of evaluation from facultv of the Ciraduate School of .Medical Sc iences. 

The Office of the Dean of the (iraduate School of Medical Sc iences w ill review the 
student's credentials and make a recommendation to the Committee on .Admissions of 
Cornell Universitv' Medical College. Only applicants who are found to be acceptable by this 



69 



committee, after review of the application and personal inten iews, can enter the Ph D -M.D. 
Program. Final decision will be made before June 1 . 

Students in this program must meet the following requirements before admission to the 
third-year clinical curriculum of the Medical College: 

1 . Complete all required graduate courses and the remainder of the first two years of the 
medical school curriculum. 

2. Pass the Admission to Doctoral Candidacy Examination, required by the Graduate School 
of Medical Sciences. 

3. Complete the dissertation research; present and successfully defend an original thesis at 
the final examination for the Ph.D. degree. 

After satisfacton fulfillment of the required clinical rotations of the Cornell third-year 
medical school curriculum, these students may receive credit for their graduate studies to 
satisfS' the elective requirements of the fourth-year medical school curriculum and will then 
be recommended for award of the M.D. degree by Cornell Universit\'. 

VCTiile registered as a graduate student in the Ph.D. -M.D. Program, the student is subject 
to the tuition schedule of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. Upon completion of the 
requirements for the Ph.D. degree, the student is registered in the Medical College and is 
subject to its tuition schedule. 



70 



Instruction at the Medical College Division 



Field of Biochemistry 

Field Director 

A. Meister, Department of Biochemistry, Room E-106, Medical College, (212) 472-6212 

Faculty Representative 

D. Wellner, Departmem of Biochemistry, Room E-219, Medical College, (212) 472-6197 

Graduate instruction is offered leading to the Ph.D. degree. Within the framework of 
degreee requirements and in consultation with the student, the course of study is planned to 
fit the need of the individual. Although formal course work is required, emphasis is placed 
on research. Research opportunities exist in various areas of biochemistr) including enzy- 
mology, structure and function of proteins and nucleic acids, molecular biolog\', physical 
biochemistry, and the intermediary metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, 
and lipids. Entering graduate students usually work for short periods in several of the labora- 
tories of the faculty members of the Field before beginning their thesis research. Students 
are encouraged to choose challenging fimdamental research problems that are on the fron- 
tiers of biochemistry. 

The laboratories of the faculty members are equipped with virtually all of the instru- 
ments and facilities required for modern biochemical research; thus, graduate students are 
instructed in such methodology as chromatography, countercurrent distribution, radioactive 
and stable isotope techniques, spectrophotometry , electrophoresis, and analytical 
ultracentrifugation. 

Students who undertake graduate study in biochemistry must have a sufficiently compre- 
hensive background in chemistry to pursue the proposed course of study and must present 
evidence ^nf knowledge of biology, general experimental physics, mathematics ( including 
differential and integral calculus). Students may remedy deficiencies in these areas during 
the first year of graduate study. The Graduate Record Examination (the aptitude test and the 
advanced test in chemistry) is ordinarily required. 

The student is required to demonstrate proficiency in one modern foreign language 
acceptable to the student's Special Committee. Proficiency in a computer programming 
language, as demonstrated by executing a meaningful program, may substitute for profi- 
ciency' in a foreign language. 

Courses 

Graduate Biochemistry Offered jointly by the faculties of the Medical (x)llege and Sloan- 
Kettering Divisions. Hiis course is designed to provide the student with a knowledge of the 
fimdamentals of biochemistry and an appreciation of the molecular basis of biological 
phenomenia. (iraduate students in the Field of Biochemistry are required to pass this course 
(or its equivalent). First and second quarters. Dr. Haschemeyer. 

Advanced Biochemistry ITiis course consists of one or more lecture scries ( minicourses ) 
covering selected areas of current interest at an advanced level, llie topics change from y ear 
to year and may be repeated after 2 or 3 years. Hie subjects offered include: I ) nucleic acids 
and protein synthesis; 2) intermediate metabolism and its regulation; 3) kinetics and 
enzyme mechanisms; 4) protein and peptide microchcniistry; 5 ) membrane structure and 
fimction; 6) hormones; 7) computer programming for the biochemist; H) phy sical methods 
in the study of macromolecular and cellular structure; 9) design of inhibitors of enzy mes 
and transport systems. Prerequisite: (iraduate Biochemistry , (bourses oftered in 198S-86: 



71 



Membrane Biochemistry Fourth quarter. Dr. Hajjar. 

Design of Inhibitors of Enzymes and Transport Systems Second and third quar- 
ters. Dr. Griffith. 

Other Academic Offerings 

Introduction to Research Laboratory rotations in experimental biochemistry dealing with 
the isolation, synthesis, and analysis of substances of biochemical importance (enzymes, co- 
enzymes, various metabolites and intermediates), and study of their properties by various 
chemical and physical techniques. The student obtains this varied research experience by 
spending approximately two months in the laboratory of each of four faculty members of his 
or her choice. For incoming graduate students majoring in biochemistry. 

Biochemistry Seminars A seminar series in which students, faculty, and invited scientists 
from this and other institutions report on progress in their laboratories. 



Field of Cell Biology and Genetics 

Field Director 

D. A. Fischman, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Room Ell 6, Medical College, 
(212)472-6400 

Faculty Representative 

J. L. German III, New York Blood Center, 310 E. 67 St., New York, NY 10021, (212) 570- 
3075 

The Field of Cell Biology and Genetics offers a program of advanced study leading to the 
Ph.D. degree. The program is intended to prepare students for a career in basic research and 
teaching in cell, developmental and molecular biology, genetics, anatomical sciences, or 
related health sciences. Administration of the Field is based in the Department of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy in a recently renovated research wing of Cornell University Medical 
(x)llege. Additional laboratories are located in various departments of Cornell University 
Medical College, the Sloan-Kettering Institute, and the New York Blood Center. 

For graduate study in the field, adequate undergraduate preparation in biology, chem- 
istrv (including organic chemistry), physics, and mathematics is recommended. Require- 
ments for admission are flexible in proportion to the promise and accomplishments of the 
applicant. Applicants are requested to present results of the Graduate Record Examination. 

Requirements for minor sponsorship in the field will be arranged with individual 
students, but research experience in the minor sponsor's laboratory is strongly encouraged. 

Students are generally required to take (x'll Biology and Microscopic Anatomy and at 
least three of the more advanced courses in genetics, molecular biology, cell biology, or 
developmental biolog)'. 

In addition to the courses listed below, appropriate courses for graduate students in the 
Field are Biochemistry, Physiology and Biophysics, and those courses given by the Field of 
Neurobiology and Behavior. 

Students are expected during their first year to spend time and perform experiments in 
the laboratories of three faculty members of the f ield. 

A reading knowledge of a foreign language is desirable. 

Hie 1 ield requires a qualifying examination at the end of the first year of residence. At 
the discretion of the examining committee, the examination may be written, or oral, or 
both, llie Admission to Doctoral Candidacy Examination required by the Graduate School of 



72 



Medical Sciences must be taken before six units of residence credit liave been accumulated 
and before substantial progress has been made in the candidate's thesis research. 

Courses 

Cell Biology and Microscopic Anatomy Offered by the Staff of the Field of Cell Biology 
and Genetics, Medical College Division, in conjunction with the Department of (x'll Biology 
and Anatomy, Medical College. This course follows a cellular and differentiative approach 
aimed at understanding the structure- function correlates that characterize the different 
tissues and organs. Selected topics are presented in the lectures and laboratory exercises to 
indicate a pattern of study and depth of analysis that the student can be expected to apply to 
the study of cells and tissues. A microscope slide collection, presenting tissues and organs in 
a variety of physiological and developmental states, as well as correlative electron micro- 
graphs are provided for individual study in the laboratory. Students must provide their own 
compound microscopes through their departments or sponsors. Second and third quaners. 
Drs. Risley and Rodriguez-Boulan. 

Gross Anatomy Regional anatomy is studied principally through dissection of the human 
body. Supplementing this technique are prosections by instructors, tutorial group discus- 
sions, and radiographic and endoscopic demonstrations. Enrollment is limited and students 
should consult the staff early in order to determine the availability of places. First and 
second quarters. The staff. 

Advanced Cell Biology Advanced course covering topics in membrane biology, cytoske- 
leton and cell motility, muscle cell biology, and aspects of nuclear structure and chromo- 
some organization. The course includes lectures and group discussions of assigned research 
papers. Prerequisite- completion or concurrent enrollment in Microscopic Anatomy, or 
previous background in basic cell biology. Offered in alternate years. Second and third quar- 
ters of 1985- 86. Dr. Wall and staff. 

Genetics A comprehensive course covering classical mendelism through chromosomal, 
molecular, somatic cell and developmental genetics. Genetics of human disease and cancer 
are studied, as well as some immunogenetics, population and evolutionary genetics. In addi- 
tion to lectures, the course includes some sessions devoted to problem solving. Second and 
third quarters. Drs. Bennett, German, Siniscalco, and Sirlin. 

Topics in Molecular Genetics The class focuses on key topics of molecular biology 
concerning gene structure and organization in procaryotcs and eucar\'otes, chromosome 
structure, DNA replication, protein synthesis and translational and transcriptional control. 
The use of genetic, biochemical and molecular biological methods to study the questions 
experimentally is covered in depth. Some topics of current interest such as immune diversity 
and oncogenes are also covered. The course includes an equal number of lectures and group 
discussions of representative research papers from the current literature. Prerequisite: back- 
ground in biological sciences. Limited to 20 students. Offered in alternate years; not offered 
in 1985-86. Drs. Chao and Traktman. 

Developmental Biology Principles of descriptive, experimental, and molecular develop- 
mental biolog)' are presented, using several animal systems as examples. Early development 
of the whole organism, and of cells, tissues, and organs are considered. Prerequisites: micro- 
scopic anatomy, biochemistr>'. Limited to 1 5 students. Offered in alternate years; not offered 
in 1985-86. Drs. Bachvarova and Bader. 

Practicum in Electron Microscopy A workshop in practical aspects of electron micros- 
copy. Following a weekly one hour lecture, students conduct specific protocols involved in 
electron microscopy. Topics covered include: tissue fixation, embedding and thin 
sectioning; transmission and scanning electron microscopy; shadow-casting of proteins and 
nucleic acids; immunocytochemistr>'; photography. All participants are required lo complete 
an independent project. Prerequisite: consent of instructors. Requirements for passing grade: 



73 



completion of an independent project paper. Limited to 6 students. Ofifered in alternate 
years. Offered in 1985-86 during ten weeks of third and fourth quarters. Dr. Dennis and staff. 

Graduate Student Seminar This course is designed to improve graduate students' skills in 
public presentation. On a rotating basis, students prepare a brief written abstract and an oral 
presentation on a topic of their choice. The presentation is informally critiqued by the 
faculty'. First through fourth quarters. Dr. Chao and staff. 



Field of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology 

Field Director 

K. I. Bems, Department of Microbiology, Room B-202, Medical College, (212) 472-6540 

Faculty Representative 

C. G. Becker, Department of Pathology, Room C-444, Medical College, (212) 472-5983- 

The Field of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology offers graduate training leading to the 
Ph.D. degree. Under special circumstances candidacy towards the M.S. degree will be consid- 
ered. The purpose of the graduate program is to provide students with a basic knowledge of 
molecular and cellular biolog>', immunolog>', and of disease processes, as well as approaches 
to the study of these areas employing the most modern techniques of molecular biology', 
immunolog)', and chemistry. It is hoped that a student completing this program will have the 
information and technical skills to make significant inquiries into the nature of disease 
processes and to bridge the gap between classical descriptive microbiology' and pathology 
and such disciplines as biochemistrv' and molecular biolog)'. 

Prospective students should complete at the undergraduate level the minimum of one 
year or its equivalent in general chemistry', organic chemistry, general physics, mathematics 
( including calculus), botany or zoolog)' (preferably both) and one semester or the equiva- 
lent of anahtical or quantitative chemistry. Students who have not completed the above 
requirements may be admitted to graduate study under the condition that deficiences be 
corrected soon after admission. Applicants are ordinarily required to present Graduate 
Record Examination scores for the aptitude test and for the advanced test in chemistry' or 
biology . Exceptions to these requirements will be considered on behaff of students with 
advanced standing. 

Courses 

Microbiology and an Introduction to Infectious Diseases Consists of laboratory cxcr 
cises. lectures, and group discu.ssions. Tlie laboratory work includes an introduction to the 
procedures used in study ing microorganisms, a .survey of the microbial flora of the upper 
respiratory and lower intestinal tracts of healthy humans, and an intensive study of the causal 
agents of specific infections, including bacteria, fungi, .spirochetes, rickettsiae, and vini.ses. 
Ilie lectures are directed tow ard the development of basic concepts, particularly the princi- 
ples invoked in microbial growth, the principles underlying active immunization, and the 
factors that enter into host parasite relationships, l-mphasis is placed on the etiology , patho- 
genesis, epidemiology , and pre\ention of infectious di.sea.se. Offered every year in the first 
quarter. Dr. O'I.eary and staff 

Advanced Diagnostic Microbiology Hie lecture and laboratory sessions acquaint the 
.student with the procedures used in and techniques of management of a clinical microbi- 
ology laboratory . Empha.sis is upon developing the student's capability in the i.solation and 
rapid identification of organisms from various types of clinical specimens. Liberal use is 



74 



made of clinical materials available through the diagnostic laboratories of New York 
Hospital. Offered every year in the third quarter. Hours by arrangement. Dr. Sentertlt. 

Pathology and Pathophysiology Placed at the interface between the basic sciences and 
the beginning of the clinical curriculum, the course is a comprehensive study of the struc- 
tural and functional alterations caused by disease. It starts with an introduction of the princi- 
ples of general pathology and the basic mechanisms of disease including cell injur)' and 
death, inflammation, thrombosis, carcinogenesis and immunopathology. lliis is followed by 
the study of the diseases that affect the various organ systems from the etiologic, pathoge- 
netic, structural and functional standpoints and including elements of clinical and laboratory 
diagnosis. Clinico-pathologic correlations are emphasized throughout the course which is 
taught with the collaboration of the Departments of Medicine, Pediatrics, Surgery, 
Neurology-, Obstetrics and Gynecology', Ophthalmology' and Otorrhinolaryngology. 

A major strength of the course is its emphasis on small group teaching. This takes four 
different formats: 1 ) microscopic laboratory where students review histologic slides repre- 
sentative of major disease processes, formulate diagnoses, and correlate microscopic findings 
with clinical signs and symptoms; 2 ) gross laboratory where students examine actual patho- 
logic specimens under the supervision of a faculty member; 3 ) pathophysiology exercises 
where students analyze case histories including diagnostic and pathogenetic considerations 
under the guidance of a clinical faculty member; and 4 ) Review s where a pathologist and 
clinician challenge students with questions pertaining to subject matter covered on the 
preceding teaching module. These various formats emphasize problem solving and concep- 
tual thinking by stimulating the student to formulate differential diagnoses and clinico- 
pathologic correlations. A microcomputer teaching laboratory serves as an adjunct facility 
for students to review course material, take quizzes and study case histories in preparation 
for the weekly clinico-pathologic conferences. The laboratory is equipped with ten work 
stations each consisiing of a Macintosh computer, a color video monitor and a video disk 
player for the display of illustrations. Second and third quarters. The staff. 

Introduction to Immunology This annual course, which is organized by the Sloan- 
Kettering Division but has an interdivisional faculty, is required of all students in the Field of 
Microbiology, Immunology , and Pathology. See under Unit of Immunology, Sloan-Kettering 
Division, foi' course description. 

Molecular Immunology The course focuses on the molecular biology of receptors on 
lymphocytes, macrophages, and granulocytes, with an emphasis on the interaction of soluble 
mediators or microbes with cells of the immune system. Research tehniques and methodolo- 
gies are discussed. The course consists of lectures, readings and discussion. A basic knowl- 
edge of immunology equivalent to the introductory course is a prerequisite. Third and 
fourth quarters. Drs. Edelson and Mosser. 

Microbiology Seminar Reports on surveys of the literature in the field and on current 
research. Presented by graduate students, faculty, and visiting scientists. Attendance is 
required of all students majoring or minoring in microbiology throughout their programs of 
study. Offered yearly, first through fourth quarters. Dr. Bems. 

Other Academic Offerings 

Clinical Microbiology Program — Ithaca and New York Campuses During the senior 
year of a special undergraduate study program on the Ithaca campus or during the year after 
receiving a bachelor's degree, the student may concentrate on developing skills in clinical 
microbiology at the ('orncll I niversity Medical ('ollege-\evv '^'ork Hospital in New ^ ork 
(ity . Students participate in courses concerned with microbiology , introduction to infec- 
tious diseases, diagnostic microbiology , parasitology , immunology . and virology , in addition 
to working in the hospital diagnostic laboratory . Iliis clinical microbiology specialization is 
designed to prepare students for employ ment in clinical microbiology laboratories. 
However, it could also be selected by students interested in further education or other 
careers. Dr. Senterfit. 



75 



Field of Neurobiology and Behavior 



Field Director 

T. H. Joh, Department of Neurology, Kips Bay Building, Medical College, (212) 472-5594 

Faculty Representative 

G. E. Gibson, Department of Neurology, Burke Rehabilitation Center, White Plains, NY, 
(914) 948-0050, Ext. 2291 

The Field of Neurobiology and Behavior provides training in the study of the nervous system. 
It includes the disciplines of neuroanatomy, neuroembryology, neurophysiology, neurophar- 
macology, neurochemistry, neuroendocrinology, molecular biology, and neuropsychology 
and perception. The program of the Field emphasizes a multi-disciplinary approach to the 
study of the nervous system, based on the belief that future advances in our understanding of 
the nervous system will be derived from the thinking and research techniques employed by 
more than one discipline. Toward this end, the program of the students entering the Field is 
planned in consultation with several staff members, and the students are expected to spend 
some period of time working closely with members of the faculty whose interests are 
related to theirs. In addition, there are regularly scheduled seminars in the Field during 
which various aspects of work in process are presented and discussed. By these means, the 
students are afforded the broadest possible view of the Field during their total training 
experience. 

The student majoring in Neurobiology and Behavior will be required to satisfy the 
requirements of the courses in neuroscience, statistics, and biomathematics, and two in the 
following areas: microscopic anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology. The 
student must also have two minors, at least one of which is outside the Field. In addition, 
participation in the seminar program and advanced course offerings is expected. While there 
are no language requirements, it is suggested that the student achieve mastery of a modern 
foreign language or a computer programming language. The student choosing Neurobiology 
and Behavior as a minor is required to participate in the neuroscience course and the 
seminar program as well as obtain any additional experience that the minor sponsor may 
suggest. 

Applicants to the Field are expected to have had adequate undergraduate training in 
biology, organic chemistry, physics, and mathematics. Graduate Recod Examination scores 
are to be submitted with the application. An interview with the applicant is considered 
highly desirable. 

Courses 

Neuroscience This is the basic undergraduate medical school course and is required of all 
major and minor candidates in the Field. It is a broadly based course and introduces the 
student to neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and pertinent neurology. Fourth quarter. Drs. 
Brooks and Gralstein. 

Neuroscience Seminar Current topics of neuroscience.s, not included or minimally 
covered in the Neuroscience course, are examined in detail. The course is required of all 
major candidates in the Field. Fourth quarter. Drs. Brooks and (irafstein. 

Neuropharmacology ( see Field of Pharmacology ). 

Behavioral Neuroscience 'Hie aim of this course is to examine the neural suKstrates of a 
variety of IxhaNioral and mental processes, including attention, perception, learning and 
mcmorv, emotion, and language Anatomical, physiological, pharmacological, biochemical, 
and molecular mechanisms of normal and pathological behaviors will he covered. The 
course will he divided into i lectures on basic mechanisms and 4 seminars exploring metho- 



76 



dological and theoretical issues in contemporary behavioral neuroscience. First quarter, 
1986-87. Drs. LeDoux and Mann. 

Neurochemistry This course will concentrate on the dynamics of neurotransmitteramino 
acid, calcium and energy metabolism of the brain. The emphasis will range from in vivo 
studies in man and animal that relate directly with behavior to purely chemical approaches. 
Second quarter, 1986- 1987. Dr. Gibson. 

Molecular Neurobiology The aim of this course is to introduce current topics of rapidly 
developing molecular biology research in neurosciences. Topics include basic concepts and 
techniques, structures of genes encoding neuron specific proteins and enzymes, and gene 
expression in neuronal cells. Third quarter, 1986-1987. Dr. Joh. 



Field of Pharmacology 

Field Director 

W. W. Y. Chan, Department of Pharmacology, Room E-400, Medical College, (212)472-6029 

Faculty Representative 

M. Okamoto, Department of Pharmacology, Room E-41 1, Medical College, (212) 472-5975 

The graduate prog'-am emphasizes sound basic training in general pharmacology. Then, by 
means of individual instruction, the candidate receives exposure to several specialt>' areas of 
pharmacology. The latter part of the graduate curriculum is devoted to research in an area of 
the candidate's choice. 

An adequate preliminary training in organic chemistry, physical chemistry, biochem- 
istry, and physiology is prerequisite to graduate work in pharmacology. Training in statistics 
is strongly-recommended. 

Applicants are required to submit Graduate Record Examination scores for the Aptitute 
Tests and the Advanced Test in biology or chemistry. 

Courses 

General Pharmacology The basic pharmacology course is offered to second-year medical 
students and to qualified graduate students. It consists of lectures, laboratory work, demon- 
strations, and seminars. The purpose of these exercises is to teach the principles of pharma- 
cology. Detailed consideration is given to the parameters of drug action to provide the 
student with the fimdamental concepts essential for the evaluation of any drug. Conse- 
quently, the scientific basis of pharmacolog\' is emphasized. Prototype drugs, essentially 
considered s>'stemically, serve to illustrate several mechanisms and parameters of drug 
action. Therapeutic applications are considered only insofar as they illustrate principles of 
pharmacology' or drug hazards. Prerequisites: biochemistry and phy siology. First quarter. Dr. 
Chan and staff. 

Advanced Courses in Pharmacology 

Molecular Pharmacology Fundamental principles governing the effects of chemicals on 
living systems are examined from the viewpoint of drug-receptor interactions. Several 
concepts are introduced including drug .selectivity, specificity dose response, and 
receptor theory. Examples of receptor isolation and receptor-drug interactions are 
discussed in detail. Prerequisites: an adequate background in biology , organic and phys- 
ical chemistry, and biochemistry. Offered every third y ear. Not offered in 1985-86. llie 
staff and invited lecturers. 



77 



Immunopharmacology The course focuses on the fundamentals of immunologic cell 
reactions and explores the mechanism of therapeutic immunologic regulation. Topics 
include: inflammator\' and allergic processes; mechanism of cell activation; mediator 
release and action; o clic nucleotides and prostaglandins; hinphokines, interferons and 
th\Tnic hormones; immunotoxicologv ; immunologic assays and use of biologies and drugs 
for immunotherapy. A background in immunology would be helpful but is not required. 
The course if ofifered jointly by the faculties of the Medical College and Sloan-Kettering 
Di\1sions. and is ofifered ever\' third year. Not ofifered in 1985-86. 

Neuropharmacology The course ofifers neuropharmacology of highlighted drugs and 
chemical substances which afifect the central nervous system. Emphasis is placed on 
molecular mechanisms of drug actions, on biochemistry and physiology^ of nervous tissue, 
focusing on neutrotransmitter action and cell membrane modulation as mechanisms, 
including neuropharmacologic agents which modify neurotransmitter actions. Several 
concepts are introduced including drug selectivit^^ specificit>- dose-response and 
receptor theory. Prerequisites: neuroscience; general Pharmacolog)' is recommended. 
Minimum of 10 students. Second quarter. Dr. Okamoto, Pharmacology and Neurobiology 
stafif, and invited lecturers. 

Other Academic Offerings 

Research in Pharmacology Research opportunities may be arranged throughout the year 
for graduate students who are not majoring in pharmacolog)' but who want some investiga- 
tive experience in the discipline. Special opportunities are ofifered for work on the nervous 
and cardiovascular sy stems and in biochemical and clinical aspects of pharmacology. (See 
Research Acti\ities. ) 

Seminars The Field of Pharmacology ofifers seminars in areas of interest to the faculty' and 
graduate students of the Field. Seminars in clinical pharmacology and teaching rounds are 
held regularly throughout the year. The content, format and schedule of these seminars arc 
determined each year on the basis of the number and backgrounds of the interested 
students. 

Journal Clubs These are ofifered in areas of pharmacology of special interest. Topics 
include the role of oxytocin and prostaglandin in labor and dysmenorrhea; regulation of 
opioid peptide biosynthesis; cardiovascular pharmacology of anaphylactic responses; neuro- 
pharmacology of drugs of abuse; clinical and geriatric pharmacology; clinical drug studies in 
the pediatric population; and prostaglandin and leukotriene pharmacology, their action on 
cardiovascular and renal systems. Each topic is one quarter in length, see the Faculty Repre- 
sentative for further information. 



Field of Physiology and Biophysics 

Field Director 

E. E. Windhager, Dt7)artment of Physiology and Biophysics, Room-C-S()8, Medical College, 
(212) 472-5229 

Faculty Representative 

T. Maack, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Room D-407, Medical College, (212) 
472-5281 

Opportunities are ofifered toward the Ph.D. degree in several areas of physiology and 
biophysics Ample space is available, and laboratories are well equipped to provide predoc- 



78 



toral training in a medical environment. Interested individuals are urged to contact the Field 
Director before preparing a formal application. Letters of inquiry should include a discussion 
of the educational background and indicate possible areas of emphasis in graduate study. 
There has been a tendency to encourage applications from individuals who have a probable 
interest in more than one of the areas of physiolog) represented within the Field. 

Applicants must have completed introductory courses in biologv , inorganic and organic 
chemistrv', physics, and mathematics through the level of differential and integral calculus. 
Additional course work in these disciplines at the undergraduate level is encouraged. Appli- 
cants with otherwise exemplary records who lack certain course requirements will be 
considered for acceptance provided that they remedy their deficiencies while in training. 

The course of study emphasizes the importance of teaching and research in the prepara 
tion and development of individuals for careers in physiologv . This goal is achieved by a 
combination of didactic courses, seminars, and closely supervised research leading toward 
the preparation of a satisfactory thesis. 

A special program of study will be developed for each student in consultation with his 
or her Special Committee. In addition to the general requirements set by the Ciraduate 
School for all fields, all candidates for the doctoral degree in physiology w ill be expected to 
meet the following requirements: 

1. Evidence of a satisfactory background in neurosciences. Ordinarily, the course in neuros- 
cience described under the Field of Neurobiologv' and Behavior, or an equivalent course, 
will be taken concurrently with the course in physiologv' and biophysics. 

2. Satisfactory' completion of the course in physiology and biophysics, or an equivalent 
course. 

3. For majors and minors in the Field, a minimum of two elective courses in the Field ordi- 
narily will be required, in addition to the course in physiology' and biophysics. 

Courses 

Physiology and Biophysics Lectures and conferences on body fluids, bioelectric 
phenomena, circulation, respiration, and gastrointestinal functon. Third quarter. Dr. Wind- 
hager and stafif. 

Lectures iind conferences on kidney function, acid-base regulation, endocrinologv , and 
metabolism; and a weekly laboratory on selected aspects of physiology. Fourth quarter. Dr. 
Windhager and stafif. 

Topics in Membrane Physiology This weekly conference is designed for Ph.D. and M.D.- 
Ph.D. students with a major or minor in Physiologv' and Biophysics. It is at a somewhat 
advanced level, especially in its quantitative approach to physiologv . The aims of the confer- 
ence are to train students in physiological concepts, to facilitate the understanding of 
lecture material in the physiologv' and biophysics course, and to establish close student- 
faculty contact. Third quarter. Dr. Andersen. 

Selected Topics in Kidney and Electrolyte Physiology and Pathophysiology Lectures, 
seminars and demonstrations. Topics include: ( 1 ) GFR, clearance concept, reabsorption and 
secretion of electrolytes; (2) concentrating mechanism; (3) electrophysiologv of the 
nephron; (4) pathophysiology of potassium: (5) renal blood flow and its inirarcnal distribu- 
tion; (6) renal physiology in the newborn; (7) control of body fluid volume and tonicity; 
(8) pathology and pathophysiology of renal failure; urinary sediment; (9) radiology of the 
kidneys; ( 10) dialysis; (II) transplantation. Minimum of 8 students. Fourth quarter. Drs. 
Maack, Windhager and staff. 

Ionic Channels The course covers mathematical and experimental approaches to the topic 
of ion movement through single channels. Minimum of 5 students. Prerequisite: 2 y ears of 
calculus. Fourth quarter. Dr. Andersen and invited lecturers. 

Physiology of Cardiac Muscle The course is designed to present cellular mechanisms 
which are involved in the fundamental processes of excitation and contraction of cardiac 



79 



muscle. Topics include: 1) action potential; 2) ion transport; 3) contractility (positive and 
negative inotropic effects); 4) excitation-contraction coupling; 5) arrhythmias; 6) cardiac 
failure. One laboratory day is planned for demonstrations of changes in action potential and 
twitch tension by inotropic agents. Minimum of 5 students. Prerequisites: third quarter physi- 
ology or equivalent. Fourth quarter. Dr. Lee and invited lecturers. 

Topics in Gastrointestinal Physiology Lectures and Seminars. Topics include: 1 ) func- 
tional morphology of stomach and intestine; 2 ) proliferation and differentiation of gastroin- 
testinal cells; 3) motility of swell in esophagus, small intestine and colon; 4) gastric and 
intestinal secretion; pancreatic secretion; 5) lipid absorption; 6)intestinal absorption of 
calcium and vitamin D; 7) structure and function of bile acids; 8) gastrointestinal hormones. 
Minimum: 8 students. Fourth quarter. Dr. Martin Lipkin and invited experts in the field. 



it 



80 



Instruction at the Sloan-Kettering Division 

Graduate Seminar This weekly graduate seminar is oflfered each year. During the first 
trimester, second-year students will present brief reports on their research experiences in 
the laboratory rotations. First -year students may report on laboratory rotations, review a 
selected area of research, or critically review a research paper. The discussion is carried out 
principally by graduate students under the guidance of their major (temporary' or perma- 
nent) sponsors. From time to time outstanding authorities are invited as guest speakers. In 
addition, students in their third and later years of graduate study address the seminars on the 
progress being made in their thesis work. 

Laboratory Rotations Throughout the year students should spend time in r.esearch labora- 
tories. Arrangements for laboratory rotation should be made with the major sponsor. 

Minor Projects Two minor subjects are required of all students and they may include some 
laboratory training, i. e , a minor project. The major sponsor assumes the responsibility for 
monitoring the time spent on the project. Minor subjects should be completed before the 
Admission to Doctoral Candidacy Examination. 

Laboratory Safety and Biohazards Course All students are required to take by their 
second year the course of six basic lectures sponsored by the Sloan-Kettering Institute Insti- 
tutional Biosafety Committee. The series covers general laboratory safety, the use of radioso- 
topes, carcinogens, primary and secondary barrier systems, contamination control, and 
hazards associated with research animals, and is supplemented by lectures on special topics 
given throughout the year. 



Unit of Cell Biology and Genetics 

Program Chairman 

J. L. Biedler, Sloan-Kettering Institute, Walker Laboratory, Room 2127, (914) 698-1 100, Ext. 
243 

Unit Chairman 

D. B. Donner, Sloan-Kettering Division, Howard Laboratory, Room 909, (212) 794-7871 

Students will spend their first year in: 1 ) satisfying course and seminar requirements; 2 ) 
participating in laboratory' rotations; and 3) initiating one or two minor projects. The I'nit 
Chairman will serve as temporary major advisor during this time. At the end of the first year 
the student's performance will be reviewed and a Special Committee of three members will 
be selected. The Special Committee membership must provide multidisciplinar> academic 
backgrounds. 

During the second academic year students should complete two minor projects, satisfv' 
the requirements of the Admission to Doctoral Candidacy Examination and initiate a thesis 
project. 

Prerequisites for a major in Cell Biology and Genetics include courses in chemistrv' 
(through organic), biochemistr>', physics, mathematics (through calculus) and general 
biological sciences (botany, zoology, microbiology, cell biology ); physical chemistrv is 
recommended. 

Submission of Graduate Record Examination results, in both aptitude and the advanced 
test in biology or chemistry is required. 



81 



Programs will be determined individually on the basis of interest and prior experience. 
Students are expected to have knowledge of materials offered in the courses of the Unit and 
in microscopic anatomy. Exemption from the courses can be granted following the 
successful completion of a written examination. Students majoring in cell biology may be 
advised to register for courses in molecular biology, genetics, biochemistry, and biostatistics. 

Courses 

Topics in Cell Biology and Genetics This course includes a detailed description of the 
structure, function and mechanism of action of hormones and growth factors. Topics 
include cell surface and intracellular receptors, signal transduction, second messenger gener- 
ation, regulation of the growth, differentiation and transformation of hemapoietic, gene 
expression and biochemical pathways. Discussion of the principles of genetics stress the rela- 
tionship of classical genetics and molecular biology with special reference to the regulation 
of gene expression during embryonic development. Sessions emphasize discussion of the 
primary literature and recent advances. First through fourth quarters. Drs. Bennett, Donner, 
Eisinger, Moore, Rosen and staff. 

Other Academic Offerings 

Endocrine Research in Progress Seminars Reports of on-going research by faculty of the 
Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Cornell University Medical College and Rockefeller 
University are given weekly. First through fourth quarters. 

Regulation of Gene Expression A journal club in which recent literature related to the 
hormonal regulation of gene expression provides the basis of discussion. Second quarter. Dr. 
Kourides and staff. 

Research Elective in Hormonal Regulation of Gene Expression A laboratory elective 
in which students will apply methods of molecular endocrinology to the study of gene 
expression. Requires a commitment of at least two concurrent quarters. Enrollment limited. 
Dr. Kourides and staff. 

Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics This elective explores the molecular basis of gene and 
chromosome changes associated with development of human tumors, in particular, 
leukemia, lymphoma and retinoblastoma. First quarter. Dr. Chaganti and staff. 



Unit of Developmental Therapy and 
Clinical Investigation 

Acting Program Co-Chairman 

J.J. Fox, Sloan Kettering Institute, Walker Laboratory, Room 30.^7, (914) 698-1 100, Fxt. 225 

Unit Chairman 

F. M. Sirotnak, Sloan-Kettering Division, Kettering Laboratory, Room 316, (212) 794-7952 

In this multidisciplinar\ program, opportunities for advanced study are focused on labora- 
tory, clinical and/or statistical research as they relate to cancer prevention, diagnosis and 
treatment I ndergraduate prerequisites var>' with the subspecialty area of training in which 
the student wishes to concentrate; the areas of study ottered and their recommended under- 
graduate backgrounds are reviewed briefly below. Ciraduate Record Examination results in 



82 



both the aptitude test and the advanced test in an appropriate area of concentration are 
required to be submitted by all applicants to the Unit. 

1. Instruction toward the Ph.D. degree with emphasis in Biochemical and Molec- 
ular Pharmacology, Medicinal Chemistry and Biochemistry, Clinical Chemistry and 
Biochemistry, Cancer Therapeutics and Toxicology. 

Undergraduate majors in biology, chemistry' or health sciences are most appropriate 
backgrounds for admission. In addition, students should have adequate training in organic 
chemistry, physical chemistry, biochemistry and physiology. Training in statistics is 
recommended. 

Course requirements include advanced instruction in cell and molecular biology, and 
courses appropriate to the subspecialty pursued by the student. Other courses might include 
one or more of the following: Advanced biochemistry, microscopic anatomy, physioiog)', 
neurosciences, biostatistics and both general and advanced pharmacology. The program of 
study designed for each student will, in general, reflect the level of the student's undergrad- 
uate preparation. 

2. Instruction toward the Ph.D. degree with emphasis in Radiation Biology, Radia- 
tion Physics, and Radiopharmaceutics. 

Applicants should have a major in biophysics or a major in biolog>', chemistrv', or mathe- 
matics, with training in general physics, electricity and magnetism, mechanics, mathematics 
(through calculus) and thermod>Tiamics. 

Students will be required to take advanced instruction in cell and molecular biology-, 
and in physics, biochemistry and mathematics, depending upon the level of prior training. 

Instruction toward the M.S. degree in Radiation Physics is also offered for candidates 
holding a B.A. or B.S. in physics. These candidates are expected to take advanced instruction 
in physics, biophvsics, biology, radiobiology, biochemistry, and biomathematics with a minor 
in one of these subjects other than physics, and prepare a thesis in the field of radiation 
physics. The candidates for the M.S. degree must demonstrate a thorough knowh ige of this 
area in a final written and oral examination. 

3. Instruction towards the Ph.D. degree in Biostatistics. 

The program is designed to provide training in statistical theory, methodology, and 
computing, combined with broad experience in data analysis and collaborative research 
with medical investigators. Admission to the program requires a B.S. degree in mathematical 
statistics, or the equivalent. 

Courses to oe completed by each student will depend upon the level of prior training 
and individual interests. In addition to basic probability theorv' and statistical inference, 
there is special emphasis on the design and analysis of clinical trials and the development of 
skills in exploratory data analysis. Each student participates in an internship program in statis- 
tical consulting and collaborative research. A doctoral dissertation in biostatistics involves 
the development of new theory or methodology under the direction of a faculty advisor. 

Courses 

General Pharmacology (see Field of Pharmacology). 
Advanced Pharmacology (see Field of Pharmacology). 

Radiation Physics, Lectures and Problems A series of lectures and assigned problems in 
applied mathematics, fimdamentals of radiation physics, x-ray and radium treatment plan 
ning, diagnostic x-ray principles, radiation protection, and uses of radioactive isotopes, l irst 
through fourth quarters. Dr. Laughlin. 

Biostatistics I: Introduction to Statistical Reasoning It is the aim of this course to help 
participants gain some insight into the theory underlying a probabilistic approach to the 
treatment of observ ational or experimental data, and to acquaint them with the most basic 
techniques of statistical analysis. First and second quarters. I)r Ciroshcn. 



83 



Biostatistics II: Experimental Design and Curve Fitting Application of concepts intro- 
duced in Biostatistics I to the analysis of scientific data. Topics include statistical design of 
experiments, analysis of variance, correlation, and linear regression. Third quarter. Drs. 
Groshen and Thaler. 

Survival Analysis and Clinical Trials Parametric and nonparametric models of survival 
times, exponential and WeibuU distributions; life-table and Kaplan-Meier estimates; design of 
randomized clinical trials, concomitant variables, stratification, sample size determination; 2- 
and k-sample techniques for censored data; generalized Wilcoxon and log-rank tests, Cox 
regression. Fourth quarter. Dr. Groshen. 

Other Academic Offerings 

Advanced Biophysics Laboratory rotations in various areas of radiation physics. Hours by 
arrangement. Dr. Laughlin. 

Radiobiology Tutorial in fiandamental radiobiology dealing with the effects of radiation on 
cells, viruses, and macromolecules, as well as on whole animals. Also covered are areas in 
radiation physics and radiation chemistry pertinent to radiobiology. Dr. Zeitz and staff. 

Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry A tutorial in radiopharmaceutical chemistry is offered to 
students majoring or minoring in this subject. Hours by arrangement. Dr. Gelbard and staff. 

Biophysics CoUoquia Reports on research in progress by faculty and outside lecturers. 
Required for majors in biophysics. Hours by arrangement. Staff. 



Unit of Immunology 

Program Chairman 

Osias Stutman, Sloan- Kettering Institute, Kettering Laboratory, Room 111 8, (212) 794-7475 

Unit Chairman 

Robert W. Knowles, Sloan-Kettering Institute, Schwartz Laboratory, Room 719, (212) 794- 
7089 

Programs are determined individually on the basis of interest, training, prior experience, and 
consultation with the student's Special Committee. The Unit has no fixed course work 
requirements other than those set by the student's permanent Special Committee. However, 
all students majoring in the program are expected to take full advantage of the Unit's core 
program of formal courses as well as to participate in additional course offerings of the 
Sloan-Kettering Division, Medical College Division, and other institutions which best comple- 
ment their previous background and fulfill their scholastic objectives. Students will spend 
their first year in: 1 ) satisfying course and seminar requirements; 2) participating in labora- 
tory rotations; and 3) initiating one or two minor projects. The Unit (chairman will serve as 
temporary' major advisor during this time. At the end of the first year, the student's perfor- 
mance will be reviewed and a Special Committee of three members will be selected. The 
Special C'ommittee includes a major sponsor and two minor sponsors with multidisciplinary 
academic backgrounds. During the second academic year, students should complete the two 
minor projects required by the Special Committee, take the Admission to Doctoral (Candi- 
dacy I'xamination, and initiate a thesis project. It is the clear intention of the Unit that exten- 
.sive formal course work should not interfere with participation in the various other activi- 



84 



tics, such as laboratory rotations, tutorials and minicourscs as well as seminars and lectures 
ofifered at the Sloan-Kettering Institute and neighboring institutions. 

Undergraduate prerequisites include a general college-level background in biology and 
other sciences, including a strong background in genetics, biochemistry and microbiology. 

Submission of Graduate Record Examination results, in both the aptitude and the 
advanced test in biology or chemistry, is required. 

Courses 

Introduction to Immunology This course provides a broad introduction to the field of 
Immunology and the specific research interests of the faculty. It is designed for first year 
graduate students and is also open to medical students and senior technologists with no 
formal training in Immunology. It includes an overview^ of the immune system, but also 
covers selected topics in detail. 

These topics include techniques in immunology, B lymphocytes, immunoglobulins and 
monoclonal antibodies, T lymphocytes and T cell clones, immunogenetics of lymphocyte 
differentiation antigens, cell mediated immunity, T cell antigen receptors, natural cytotox- 
icity, macrophage and other accessory cells, lymphokines, the serum complement system, 
the major histocompatibility complex genes and transplantation, HLA and disease associa- 
tions, and tumor immunology. First and second quarters. R. Knowles and the Immunology 
Unit faculty. 

Other Academic Ofiferings 

Colloquia in Immunology Informal sessions between students and senior faculty 
members to acquaint students w ith the major research programs headed by each of the 
faculty members of the Immunology Unit. Students from other units are also welcome to 
these sessions, which are announced monthly. The colloquia are open to all graduate 
students at all levels of training. 

Laboratory Rotations, Tutorials and Minicourses In order to become familiar with the 
various research programs which are available to students doing major or minor work in 
immunology, the Unit advises entering students to participate in as many one-week labora- 
tory rotations, tutorials and minicourses as can be accommodated into the first-year 
schedule. The lists and descriptions for laboratory rotations, tutorial programs and 
minicourses are available from the office of the Unit Chairman. 



8S 



Instruction in the Interdivisional Program in 
Molecular Biology 

Interdivisional Program Co-Chairmen 

R. M. Krug, Chairman, Program in Molecular Biology and Virology, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 
Kettering Laboratory, Room 406A, (212) 794-7475. 

K. I. Berns, Chairman, Department of Microbiology, Cornell University Medical College; 
Director, Field of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences, Medical College, Room B-309, (212) 472-6540. 

Interdivisional Unit Chairman 

K. J. Marians, Sloan-Kettering Institute, Kettering Laboratory, Room 820A, (212) 794-5890. 

A good background in genetics, chemistry or biochemistry is required of students. Grad- 
uate Record Examination scores in both the aptitude test and the advanced test in biology or 
chemistry are also required. 

Course Requirements In the first two years students are expected to complete a core 
curriculum of Graduate Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, Nucleic Acids Enzy- 
mology, Molecular Virology, Molecular Genetics and Graduate Seminar. Students are also 
required to take a minimum of two additional courses in order to complete the require- 
ments for the Ph.D. 

Minor Requirements and Laboratory Rotations It is expected that most students will 
elect to rotate through two or three laboratories. In that event, a written report summa- 
rizing the research project undertaken during a rotation through a laboratory other than the 
one finally chosen for thesis research will fulfill the minor requirement. In the event that the 
student chooses not to undertake laboratory rotations and to commence thesis research 
directly, the Curriculum Committee will assign a written project that will fulfill the minor 
requirement. The minor requirement must be completed before the student can take the 
Admission to Doctoral Candidacy Examination. 

Admission to Doctoral Candidacy This Examination will be given once a year in June and 
consist of two parts, a uniform written exam and an oral defense of a written research 
proposal. The proposal cannot be in the same field as the student's thesis research. It is 
expected that most students will take this exam at the end of their second year. 

Special Committee A student's Special Committee will be chosen by the student's mentor 
in consultation with the Curriculum Committee when the student elects a laboratory for 
thesis research. 

Courses 

Molecular Biology A year-long course presenting the fundamentals of eukaryote gene struc- 
ture, expression and regulation. Topics discussed include: DNA sequence organization, chro- 
matin structure, viral and cellular RNA transcription, translation and its regulation, control of 
gene expression in model systems and molecular aspects of carcinogenesis. First through 
fourth cjuarters, Drs. Sen, l urth, and staff. 

Nucleic Acids Enzymology A formal course presenting the enzymological mechanisms 
and control of prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription and DNA replication. Enzymes 
which alter DNA structure and shape are reviewed and topics in DNA repair and recombina- 
tion are also covered. Graduate Biochemistr)' is a prerequisite. First and second quarters, 
19H6-87. Drs. Marians and Hurwitz. 



86 



Molecular Virology A formal course in which major emphasis is placed on the basic mecha- 
nisms in the hiolog\' of all animal viruses, including RNA and DNA tumor viruses. ITie topics 
considered include virus structure and composition, assay of \ iruses and viral specific prod- 
ucts, transcription and replication of viral nucleic acids, translation of virus-specific proteins, 
assembly of viral particles, structural and functional alterations in viral-infected cells 
including transformation, pathogenesis of viral diseases, and viral genetics. Third and fourth 
quarters, 1986-87. Drs. Krug and Berns. 

Molecular Genetics This course is designed to familiarize graduate students with practical 
problems in current research and to encourage critical reading of the scientific literature. 
Students receive reading assignments and are expected to present short summaries of impor- 
tant experiments at each class meeting. Topics covered include protein structure, protein- 
nucleic acid interactions, models for transcription factors, genetic complementation, 
mapping and suppressor analysis in bacteria and yeast. First and second quarters, 1986-87. 
Dr. Neflfand staff. 

Molecular Biology of Growth Control and Neoplastic Transformation This course 
focuses on current efiforts to understand the neoplastic cell phenot\pe from a molecular 
point of view. The effects of RNA and DNA tumor viruses on host cells are discussed, in 
particular the transformation and/or differentiation blocks of defined cell lineages by certain 
agents. The nature and enzymatic specificities of viral gene products responsible for transfor- 
mation are compared with related products of normal cellular genes. The potential interac- 
tion of such products with regulatory sy stems controlling cell shape, adhesiveness, motility, 
and mitosis are described, as well as the possible involvement of the same systems in 
nonviral neoplasias. A section of the course is devoted to the molecular biology and 
biochemistry of cell surface growth factor- and polypeptide hormone-receptors and mecha- 
nisms of signal tri^nsmission across biological membranes. At least part of the course consists 
of student presentations on relevant subjects. Third and fourth quarters. Drs. Fleissner, 
Hayward, Rosen and staff. 

Molecular Parasitology This course focuses on the recent advances in the molecular and 
biochemical analysis of parasite physiology and their interactions with vertebrate hosts. 
Lectures -fre offered once a week, followed by a discussion group Topics include structures 
and functions of surface molecules, mechanism of antigen variations and immune evasion, 
interaction of parasites with targeted cells as well as general aspects of gene organization 
and expression in various parasites. Third and fourth quarters. Drs. Ravetch and Meshnick 
(CUMC). 



87 



Register 



89 



University Administration 

Frank H.T. Rhodes, President of the 
University 

Robert Barker, University Provost 

Thomas H. Meikle, jr.. Provost for Medieal 
Aft'airs and Dean of the Medical 
College 

William Ci. Herbster, Senior V^iee President 

Joseph M. Ballantv ne, Vice President for 
Research and Advanced Studies 

Robert Matyas, Vice President for Facilities 
and Business Operations 

William D. Ciurowitz, Vice President for 
Campus Attairs 

James E. Morley, Vice President and 
Treasurer 

Richard M. Ramin, Vice President for Public 
Affairs 

James A. Sanderson, Chief Investment 
Officer 

Joan R. Egner, Associate Provost 

Barr>' Adams, Vice Provost for Undergrad- 
uate Education 

Kenneth M. King, Vice Provost 

James W. Spencer, Vicee Provost 

Walter J. Relihan, Jr., Universitv' Counsel and 
Secretary of the (A)rporati()n 

Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences 

Administration 

Frank H. T. Rhodes, President of the 
University 

Alison P. (^asarett. Dean of the (iraduate 
School 

Bernard L. Horecker, Dean of the Ciraduate 
School of Medical Sciences, Associate 
Dean of the draduate School 

Dieter H. Sussdorf, Associate Dean of the 

Ciraduate School of Medical Sciences. 
Assistant Dean of the draduate School 



Richard A. Ritkiiid, Director, Sloan Kettering 
Div ision 

DorrisJ. Hutchison, Associate Director, 
Sloan Kettering Division; As.sociale 
Dean of the draduate School of 
Medical Sciences, Assistant Dean of 
the (iraduate School 

Faculty 

Alcock, Nancv W., Assistant l^rofessor of 

Developmental Hierapy and (Clinical 
Investigation. B.S. 1949, University of 
Tasmania ( Australia ); Ph.D. 1960,' 
University of London ( England ) 

Allen, Fred H. Jr., (finical Associate 

Profes,s()r of Pediatrics, A.B. 1934, 
Amherst College; M.D. 193«, Harvard 
I Iniv ersity 

Alonso, Daniel R., Associate Profes.sor of 
Pathology . M.D. 1962, University of 
Cuyo (Argentina) 

Andersen, Ohif S., Professor of Phv siologv 

and Biophysics. Candidatus Medici nae 

1971, University of (-openliagen 
(Denmark) 

Artzt, Karen, Associate Professor of Cell 

Biologv and denetics. A.B. 1964, Ph.D. 

1972, Cornell University 

Bachvarova, Rosemar)- F., Associate Professor 
of Cell Biologv' and Anatomy. B.A. 
1961, RadcliffV College; Ph.D.. 1966, 
Rockefeller Universirv 

Bader, Dav id M., Assistant Professor of Cell 
Biologv and Anatomy. B.A. 1974. 
Augustana College; Ph.D. 19^8, Univer- 
sity of^orth Dakota 

Baker, Harriet D., Assistant Professor of 

Neurologv. B.A. 1963, W ells College; 
M.S. \96~', University of Illinois; Ph D 
I9''6, University of lovva 

Balis, M. Earl, Pr()fe.s.sor of ('ell Biologv and 
denetics. B.A. 1943. Femple Univer- 
sity; Ph.D. 1949. Universitv of 
Pennsv Ivania 

Bancroft, F. Carter, Adjunct A.ssociale 

Professor of Molecular Biologv and 
X irologv. B.S. 19S9. Antioch College; 
M A. 196 I.Johns Hopkins University; 
Ph D 1966. Universilv of ('alifornia at 
Berkeley 



91 



Bank, Arthur, Adjunct Professor of Cell 
Biolog>' and Anatomy. B A. 1956, 
Columbia University; M.D. 1960, 
Hanard Uni\'crsit>' Medical School 

Baram , Francis, Assistant Professor of Micro- 
biolog>'. B.A. 1976, University of Illi- 
nois at Chicago Circle; Ph.D. 1981, 
Rockefeller University 

Becker, Carl G., Professor of Pathology. B.S. 
1957, Yale University; M.D. 1961, 
Cornell University 

Bedford, J. Michael, Professor of Cell Biology 
and Anatomy. B.A. 1955, M A. Vet. 
M.B. 1958, Cambridge University' 
(England); Ph.D. 1965, University' of 
London (England) 

Bennett, Dorothea, Professor of Cell Biology 
and Genetics. A.B. 1951, Barnard 
College; Ph.D. 1956, Columbia 
I Iniversit>' 

Berns, Kenneth I., R.A. Rees Pritchett 

Professor of Microbiology. A.B. I960, 
Ph.D. 1964, M.D. 1966, Johns Hopkins 
University 

Besmer, Peter, Assistant Professor of Molec- 
ular Biology and Virology. M.S. 1964; 
Ph.D. 1969, Eidgenossische Tech- 
nische Hochschule (Sw^itzerland) 

Bianco, Celso, Adjunct Professor of (-ell 
Biolog) and Anatomy. M.D. 1966, 
Escola Paulista de Medicina (Sao 
Paulo, Brazil) 

Biedler, June L., Professor of Cell Biology 
and Genetics. A.B. 1947, Vassar 
College; Ph.D. 1959, Cornell 
I Iniversity 

Black, Ira B., Professor of Neurology'. A.B. 
1961, Columbia College; M l). 1965, 
Harvard University 

Blass, John P.. Professor of Neurology and 
Medicine, A.B. 1958, llar\ard Univer- 
sit\ , Ph.D. 1960, I niversitNof London 
(i:ngland). M l). 1965, Columbia 
University 

liorenfreund. l-lk n. Associate Professor of 
Cell hiology and Genetics. B.S. 1946, 
Hunter College; Ph D. 195^, New 
"N'ork I ni\ersily 

B()ske\ Adele L, Associiite Professor of 
hi()chemistr> B.A. 196 », Barnard 
College; Ph.D. 1970, Brown University 



Boyse, Edward A., Professor of Immunology. 
M.B.B.S. 1952, M.D. 1957, University 
of London (England) 

Breslow, Esther M., Professor of Biochem- 
istry. B.S. 1953, Cornell University; 
M.S. 1955, Ph.D. 1959, New York 
University 

Brooks, Dana C, Professor of Cell Biology 
and Anatomy. B.E.E. 1949, M.D. 1957, 
(>ornell University 

Bullough, Peter, Associate Professor of 
Pathology. M.D. 1956, Liverpool 
University (England) 

Cayre, Yvon, Assistant Professor of Immu- 
nology. M.D. 1972, Montpellier 
Faculty of Medicine (France); Dr. Sci. 
1 978, Paris Faculty of Science 
(France) 

Chaganti, Raju S., Associate Professor of Cell 
Biology and Genetics. B.S. 1954, M.S. 
1955, Andhra University (India); Ph.D. 

1964, Harvard University 

Chan, Walter W.Y., Professor of Pharma- 
cology. B.A. 1956, University of 
Wisconsin; Ph.D. 1961, Columbia 
University 

Chao, Moses V., Assistant Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy. B.A. 1973, 
Pomona College; Ph.D. 1980, Univer- 
sity of C^alifornia at Los Angele.s 

(^hen-Kiang, Selina Y., A.ssistant Professor of 
Molecular Biology and Virology. B.S. 

1965, National Taiwan University; 
Ph.D. 1977, Columbia University 

(.hou, Ting-(.hao, Associate Professor of 

Developmental llierapy and Clinical 
Investigation. B.S. 1961, Kaohsiung 
Medical College (Taiwan); M.S. 1965, 
National Taiwan University; Ph.D. 
1970, Yale University 

Cooper, Arthur J. L., Associate Research 
Professor of Biochemistry in 
Neurology, Assi.stant Profes.sor of 
Biochemistn. B.Sc. 1967, M.Sc. 1969, 
I !ni\ersit\ of London ( 1-ngland ); Ph.D. 
1974, Cornell University 

(■unningham-Rundles, Charlotte, Assist;inl 
Prolessor of Ininuinology B.S. 1965, 
Duke Uni\ersit\; M l). 1969, Columbia 
College of Physicians and Surgeons; 
Ph.D. 197 4, New \()rk University 



92 



Darzynkicwicz, Zbignicw, Associate 
Professor of (>ell Biologv' and 
Genetics. M I). 1960, Academy of 
Medicine, Warsaw ( Poland ); Ph.D. 

1965, Academy of Medicine and 
Polish Academy of Sciences ( Poland ) 

Deschner. Kleanor E., Assistant Professor of 
Cell Biolog) and (ienetics. B.A. 1949, 
Notre Dame of Staten Island; M.S. 
1951, Ph.D. 1954, Fordham University 

Dickerman, Robert W., Associate Professor 
of Microbiolog)'. B.S. 1951, Cornell 
Universirv'; M A. 1953, Universit)' of 
Arizona; Ph.D. 1961, Universit)' of 
Minnesota 

Donner, David B., Associate Professor of Cell 
Biology- and Genetics. B.A. 1966, 
Queens College; Ph.D. 1972, Rensse- 
laer Polytechnic Institute 

Dreyfus, Cheryl F., Assistant Professor of 
Neurology. B.S. 1967, University' of 
Vermont;'M.S. 1969, Ph.D. 1976, 
Cornell University 

Dupont, Bo, Professor of Immunology. M.D. 

1966, University of Arhus (Denmark) 

Edelson, Paul, Associate Professor of Pediat- 
rics. A.B. 1964, University- of 
Rochester; M.D. 1969, State University 
of Mew York. Downstate Medical 
(.enter, Brooklyn, New York 

Eisinger, Magdalena Ci., Assistant Professor of 
Cell Biology and Genetics. D.V.M. 
1962, Agricultural University Kosice 
( Czechosknakia ) 

Ellis, John T., Professor of Pathology. B.A. 

1942, University of Texxs; M.D. 1945, 
Northwestern University- 
Evans, Robert L., Assistant Professor of Immu- 
nology. M.D. 1972, University of 
VC ashington 

Fairclough, Gordon F., Associate Professor of 
Biochemistry . B.A. 1960. Ph.D. 1966. 
Yale University 

Falck-Pedersen, Erik, Assistant Profes.sor of 
Microbiology. B.A. 19^6, North 
Central College; Ph.D. 1982, Univer- 
sity of Illinois 

Famulari. Nancy G.. A.ssistant Profes.sor of 
Molecular Biology and \ irology . B.A. 
1969. Colby College; Ph. I) Ur^, 
C^ornell University 



Fell, Colin, Associate Profes.sor of Phy siology 
and Biophysics. B. A. 1951, Antioch 
College; M.S. 1953, Ph.D. 1957, Wayne 
State University 

l elsen, Diane F., A.ssistant Professor of Phar- 
macology in Surgery. B.A. 19"'4, 
Queens College; Ph.D. 1979, Mt. Sinai 
School of Medicine 

Fischman, Donald A., Professor of Cell 

Biology and Anatomy. IIar\ey Klein 
Professor of Biomedical Sciences. A.B. 
195^, Kenyon College; M l). 1961. 
Cornell University 

Flomenberg, Neal, Assistant Professor of 

Immunology. B.S. 1974. Pennsylvania 
State University; M l). 1976. Jeiferson 
Medical (College 

Fleissner, Erwin, Professor of Molecular 

Biology and Virology . B.A. 195"^, \'ale 
University-; Ph.D. 1963, Columbia 
University 

Fox, Jack J., Professor of Dex elopmental 
ITierapy and Clinical Investigation. 
A.B. 1939, Ph.D. 1950, University of 
Colorado 

Fried, Jerrold, Associate Profes.sor of Devel- 
opmental Ilierapy and Clinical ln\esti- 
gation. B.S. 1958. (California Institute 
of Technology; Ph.D. 1964. Stanford 
University 

Freidman, Eileen A., Assistant Profes.sor of 
Cell Biology and Genetics. A.B. 196"^, 
New- York I niversity; Ph.D. 19^2. 
Johns Hopkins University 

Furth, Mark E., Assistant Profes-sor of .Molec 
ular Biology and X'irology . B.A. 19^2. 
Har\ard University ; Ph.D. 19"8, Uni\ er 
sity of Wisconsin-Madison 

Gardner. Daniel. Associate Profes.sor of Phy .si- 
ology and Biophysics. A.B. 1966. 
Columbia College; Ph. I) 19^1, New 
^'ork University 

(ias.s, Jerald I)., Associate Professor of 

Biochemistry. B.S. 195". University of 
Oklahoma; A.M. 1962. Harvard Uni\er 
sity; Ph.D. 1969. Cornell Universit\ 

Gaz/aniga. Michael S.. Profes.sor of Neuropsy 
chology in .Neurology. A.B. 1961. Dart 
mouth College; Ph.D. 19(>4. California 
Institute of Technology 



93 



Gelbard, Allan S., Associate Professor of 

Developmental Therapy and Clinical 
Investigation. B.S. 1955, Brooklyn 
College; M.S. 1956, University of 
Massachusetts; Ph.D. 1959, University 
of Wisconsin 

Geller, Nancy L., Assistant Professor of Devel- 
opmental Therapy and Clinical Investi- 
gation. B.S. 1965, City University of 
New York; M A. 1967, Case Institute 
of Technology; Ph.D. 1972, Case 
Western Reserve University 

German, James L. Ill, Clinical Professor of 
Pediatrics; Clinical Professor of Medi- 
cine. B.S. 1945, Louisiana Polytechnic 
Institute; M.D. 1949, Southvv^estern 
Medical College 

Gershengorn, Marvin C, Professor of Physi- 
ology' and Biophysics. B.S. 1967, City 
College of the City University of New 
York; M.D. 1971, New York University 
School of Medicine 

Gibbs, James G. Jr., Associate Professor of 
Psychiatry. B.S. I960, Trinity College; 
M.b. 1964, Medical College of South 
Carolina 

Gibson, (lar)' E., Associate Professor of 
Neurology. B.S. 1968, University of 
Wyoming; Ph.D. 1973, Cornell 
University 

Gilder, Helena, Associate Professor of 
Biochemistry in Surgery; Assistant 
Professor of Biochemistry. A.B. 1935, 
Vassar College; M.D. 1940, Cornell 
University 

Goldstein, Jack, Associate Professor of 
Biochemistr>'. B.A. 1952, Brooklyn 
College; M.N.S. 1957, Ph.D. 1959, 
Cornell University 

Graf, Lloyd H.Jr., Assistant Professor of 
Genetics in Obstetrics and (iyne- 
cology. B.S. 1967, Ph.D. 1972, Duke 
University 

Grafstein, Bernicc, Vincent and Brook Astor 
Distinguished Professor of Ncuro- 
science. Professor of Physiology' and 
Biophysics. IVA. 1 95 1 , I niversity of 
Toronto (Canada); Ph.D. 1954, McGill 
University (Canada) 



Greif, Roger L., Emeritus Professor of Physi- 
ology and Biophysics. B .S. 1937, 
Haverford College; M.D. 1941, Johns 
Hopkins University 

Griffith, Owen W., Associate Professor of 

Biochemistry. B.A. 1968, University of 
California at Berkeley; Ph.D. 1976, 
Rockefeller University 

Groshen, Susan, Assistant Professor of Devel- 
opmental Therapy and Clinical Investi- 
gation. A.B. 1973, Cornell University; 
M.S. 1976, Ph.D. 1978, Rutgers 
University 

Gupta, Sohan Lai, Assistant Professor of 

Molecular Biology and Virology. M.S. 
1960, Aligarh Muslim University 
(India); Ph.D. 1967, All India Institute 
of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 
(India) 

Hajjar, David P., Associate Professor of 

Pathology. B.A. 1974, American Inter- 
national College; M.S. 1977, Ph.D. 
1978, University of New Hampshire 

Halmi, Katherine A., Associate Professor of 
Psychiatry. B.A. 1961, M.D. 1965, 
University of Iowa 

Hammerling, Ulrich, Professor of Immu- 
nology. Diplom 1961 Universitat Frei- 
burg (Germany); Ph.D. 1965, Max 
Planck Institut ftir Immunobiologie 
(Germany) 

Hardy, William D. Jr., Assistant Professor of 
Molecular Biology and Virology. A A. 
1969, B.S. 1962, George Washington 
University; V.M.D. 1966, University of 
Pennsylvania 

Haschemeyer, Rudy H., Professor of 

Biochemistr>'. B.A. 1952, Carthage 
College; Ph.D. 1957, University of 
Illinois 

HavAvard, William S., Professor of Molecular 
Biology and Virology . B.A. 1964, 
University of (lalifornia. Riverside; 
Ph.D. 1969, University of California, 
San Diego 

llinkle, Lawrence E. Jr., Professor of Medi- 
cine; l^rofessor of Medicine in l\sychi- 
atry. B.A. 1938, University of North 
Carolina; M l). 1942, Hanard 
I Iniversity 



94 



Hoflfmann, Michael K., Associate Professor of 
Immunology. M.D. 1966, llnivcrsitat 
Tubingen ((iermany) 

HoUoman, William, Professor of Microbi- 
ology, B.S. 1967, University of Texas; 
Ph.D. 1971, University of California, 
Berkeley 

Horecker, Bernard L., Professor of Biochem 
istry. B.S. 1936, Ph.D. 1939, University 
of Chicago 

Hosein, Barbara H., Adjunct Assistant 
Professor of (x'll Biology and 
Anatomy. B.A. 1969, University of 
Kansas; M.S. 1971, Ph.D. 1973, Univer- 
sity of Michigan 

Houde, Raymond W., Professor of Pharma- 
colog)'; Professor of Developmental 
Therapy and (Clinical Investigation. 
A.B. 1940, M.D. 1943, New York 
University 

Houghton, Alan, Assistant Professor of Immu- 
nology, B.A. 1970, Stanford University; 
M.D. 1974, Universit)' of Connecticut 

Hurwitz, Jerard, Professor of Molecular 
Biology- and Virology. BA. 1949, 
Indiana University'; Ph.D. 1953, 
Western Reserve University 

Hutchison, Dorris J., Professor of Cell 
Biolog)' and Genetics. B.S. 1940, 
Western Kentucky State College; M.S. 
1943, University' of Kentucky; Ph.D. 
1949, Rutgers University 

lacovitti, Lorraine, Assistant Professor of 

Neurobiology in Neurology. B.S. 1973, 
Monmouth College, Ph.D. 1979, 
Cornell University Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences 

ladecola, Costantino, Assistant Professor of 
Neurology. M.D. 1977, University of 
Rome (Italy) 

Incefy, Cienevieve S., Assistant Professor of 
Immunology. B.Sc. 1959, M.Sc. 1960, 
Ph.D. 1964,'ohio State University 

Inturrisi, Charles E., Professor of Pharma- 
cology. B.S. 1962, University of 
Connecticut; M.S. 1965; PhJ). 196"', 
Tulane University 

Jaflfe, Eric, Professor of Medicine. M.D. 1966, 
State University of New ^'ork, Down- 
state Medical Cxnler 



Joh, l ong Hyub, Professor of Neurobiology 
in Neurology. B.S. 1953, Seoul 
National University (Korea); Ph.D. 
1971, New York University 

Jones, Iliomas Clifford, Professor of Medi- 
cine. B.A. 1958, Allegheny College; 
M.D. 1962, Case Western Reserve 
University 

Kaplan, Barry B., Adjunct Associate Professor 
of Cell Biology and Anatomy. B.A. 
1968, M A. 1969, Hofstra University; 
Ph.D. 1974, Cornell University 

Keithly, Jan S. Assistant Professor of Microbi- 
ology; Assistant Professor of Microbi- 
ology in Medicine. B. S. 1963, (antral 
Missouri State University; Ph.D. Iowa 
State University 

King, Thomas K.G, Associate Professor of 

Medicine, Clinical Associate Professor 
of Physiology and Biophysics. 
M.B.B.Ch. 1959, M.D. 1963, University 
of Edinburgh (United Kingdom) 

Knowles, Robert, Assistant Professor of 
Immunology. A.B. 1970, Bowdoin 
College; Ph D. 1976, Pennsy lvania 
State University 

Kourides, lone A., Associate Professor of Cell 
Biology and Genetics. B.A. 1963. 
Wellesley College; M.D. 1967, Harvard 
University 

Krug, Robert M., Professor of Molecular 
Biology and Virology . B.A. 1961. 
Harvard University; Ph.D. 1966, Rocke- 
feller University 

I^cy, Elizabeth, Assistant Professor of Molec- 
ular Biology and Virology . B.A. 19"'4, 
University of Pennsy lvania: Ph.D. 1980. 
California Institute of Technoigy 

I^i, Chun-Yen, Adjunct Professor of 

Biochemistry. B.S. 1953. M .S. 195^, 
National Taiwan University; Ph D 
1961, University of Illinois 

Laughlin, Johns S.. Professor of Develop 

mental llierapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. A.B. 1940, \\ illametie University ; 
Ph.D. 1947, University of Illinois 

Ee Do ux, Joseph E., A.ssistant Professor of 

Neurology . B.S. U^^l. M.S. 19"-^ l.oui 
siana State University ; Ph D 19^^, 
State llniversity of New ^ ork at Stony 
Brook 



95 



Lee, Chin Ok, Associate Professor of Physi- 
olog)' and Biophysics. M.S. 1967, Seoul 
National Universit\' (Koera); Ph.D. 
1973, Indiana Universit)' School of 
Medicine 

Lee, Janet, Assistant Professor of Immu- 
nology . B.A. 1972, University of Minne- 
sota; M.S. 1974, University^ of 
Wisconsin; Ph.D. 1979, University' of 
California at San Francisco 

Levi, Roberto, Professor of Pharmacology. 
M.D. I960, Universirv' of Florence 
(Italy) 

Levy, David E., Associate Professor of 

Neurology. A.B. 1963, M.D. 1968, 
Harvard University 

Lin, Chiann-Tso, Assistant Professor of Physi- 
ology and Biophysics. Diploma of Engi- 
neering 1963, Taipei Institute of Tech- 
nology; Diploma of Chemistry 
(Master) 1970, Technical University 
of Braunschweig (West Germany); 
Ph.D. 1974, University of Frankfurt 
(West Germany) 

Lipkin, Martin, Professor of Medicine. A.B. 

1946, M.D. 1950, New York University 

Lloyd, Kenneth O., Associate Professor of 

Immunology. Ph.D. I960, University of 
College of North Wales (England) 

Lockard, Raymond E., Assistant Professor of 
Biochemistry. B.S. 1966, Syracuse 
University; Ph.D. 1972, University of 
Cincinnati 

Maack, TTliomas, Professor of Physiology and 
Biophysics. M.D. 1962, University of 
Sao Paulo (Brazil) 

MacLeod, John, Emeritus Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy. A.B. 1934, M.Sc. 
1937. New York University; Ph.D. 
1941, Cornell University 

Mann, J. John, Associate Professor of Psychi- 
atry. B.S., M.D. 1971. University of 
Melbourne (Australia) 

Marians, Kenneth J., Associate Professor of 
Molecular Biology and Virology . B.S. 
1972, Polytechnic Institute of 
Brooklyn; Ph.D. 1976, Cornell 
I niversity 



Marks, Paul A., Professor of Cell Biology and 
Genetics. A.B. 1945, Columbia Univer- 
sity; M.D. 1949, College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, Columbia University 

Mehta, Bipin M., Assistant Professor of Devel- 
opmental Therapv and Clinical Investi- 
gation. B.Sc. 1955, M.Sc. 1957, Ph.D. 
1963, Bombay University (India) 

Meister, Alton, Isreal Rogosin Professor of 
Biochemistry. B.S. 1942, Harvard 
University; M.D. 1945, Cornell 
University 

Melamed, Myron R., Professor of Cell 
Biology and Genetics. B.S. 1947, 
Western Reserve University; M.D. 
1950, University of Cincinnati 

Melera, Peter W., Assistant Professor of 

Molecular Biology and Virology. A.A.S. 

1963, State University of New York at 
Cobleskill; B.S.A. 1965, Ph.D. 1969, 
University of Georgia 

Meshnick, Steven R., Assistant Professor of 
Medicine. B.A. 1972, Columbia Univer- 
sity; Ph.D. 1978, Rockefeller Univer- 
sity; M.D. 1979, Cornell University 

Minick, C. Richard, Professor of Pathology. 
B.S. 1957, University of Wyoming; 
M.D. I960, Cornell University 

Moon, Hong Mo, Adjunct Professor of Neuro- 
biology. B.S. 1961, Sung Kyim Kwan 
University (Korea); Ph.D. 1967, 
University of North Carolina 

Moore, Malcolm A.S., Professor of Cell 

Biology and Genetics. M B. 1963, B.A. 

1964, b. Phil. 1967, M A. 1970, 
Oxford University (England) 

Muller-Eberhard, Ursula, Professor of Pediat- 
rics; Professor of Pharmacology. M.D. 
1953, University of (iottingen 
( Ciermany ) 

INachman, Ralph L., Professor of Medicine. 
A.B. 1953, M l). 1956, Vanderbilt 
University 

Nachshen, Daniel A., Assistant Professor of 
Physiology and Biophysics. B.Sc. 1970, 
Hebrew University; Ph.D. 19^9, 
Sackler ,Sch()()l of Medicine at Tel Aviv 
I ni\ersity ( Israel ) 



96 



Neff, Norma, Assistant Professor of Molec- 
ular Biol()g>' and Virolog)'. B.A. 1974, 
Rice I niversit); Ph.D. 19^8, University 
of California, Berkeley 

Novogrodsky, Abraham, Associate Professor 
of Biochemistr\. M O. 1960, Hebrew 
llniversit) Medical School, Jerusalem; 
Ph.D. 1974, Weizmann Institute of 
Science, Rehovot ( Israel ) 

O'Donnell, Paul V., Assistant Professor of 
Molecular Biolog} and Virolog>'. B.S. 
1968, Rensselaer PoKtechnic Insti- 
tute; Ph.D. 1973< Cornell Universit>' 

Oettgen, Herbert F., Professor of Immu- 
nolog)'. M.D. 1951, Universit) of 
Cologne (Germany) 

Okamoto, Michiko, Professor of Pharma- 
colog}-. B.S. 1954, Tok>'o College of 
Pharmacy (Japan); M.S. 1957, Purdue 
Universit\; Ph.D. 1964, Cornell 
University 

Old, Lloyd J., Professor of Immunobiology. 
B.A. 1955, M.D. 1958, 1 niversit) of 
California 

O'Lean , William M., Professor of Microbi- 
olog\. B.S. 1952, M.S. 1953, Ph.D. 
1957, University of Pittsburgh 

O'Reilly. Richard J., Professor of Immu- 

noloj:,y. A.B. 1964, College of the Holy 
Cross; M.D. 1968, University of 
Rochester 

Otter. Brain J.. Associate Professor of Devel- 
opmental Therapy and Clinical Investi- 
gation. B.Sc. 196i, Ph.D. 1965, Univer- 
sity of Bristol ( England ) 

Palmer. Lawrence G.. Associate Profes.sor of 
Physiolog\- and Biophy.sics. B.A. 19''0, 
Swarthmore College; Ph.D. 19^6, 
University of Penn.sylvania 

Pardee, Joel D., Assistant Professor of Cell 

Biolog} and Anatomy. B.S. 19^3. Co\o- 
rado State Universitv ; Ph.D. 19"8, Stan- 
ford University' 

Pasternak, Gavril ., A.ssociate Professor of 
Pharmacolog). B.A. 1969, M.D. 19^3, 
Ph.D. 1974, Johns Hopkins University 

Pelus, Louis M.. Assistant Professor of (x'll 
Biology and (ienetics. B.A. 19''3, 
Queens College of the City Uni\ ersir\' 
of New York; M.S. 19"^. Ph.D. 19"^, 
Rutgers University 



Petito, Carol K., A.s.s()ciate Profes-sor of 

Pathology . B.S. 1963. JacLson College; 
M.D. 1967, Columbia University 

Phillips, David M., Adjunct Professor of (xll 
Biology and Anatomy. B.S. 1961, 
Northea.stern University, Ph. I) 1966. 
University of Chicago 

Pickel, Virginia M., Profes.sor of Neurology. 
B.S. 1965, M.S. 1967, University of 
renne.s.see; Ph.D. 19":'(). V'anderbilt 
University 

Pickering. Thomas (i.. A.ssociate Professor of 
Medicine. B.A. 1962. M A. 1968. 
Cambridge University ( Hngland ); 
Ph.D. 1970, Oxford I niversity 
( England ) 

Plum, Fred. Anne Parrish Titzell Professor of 
Neurology. B.A. 1944. Dartmouth 
College; M.D. 1947, Cornell University 

Pollack, Marily n S.. Associate Professor of 
Immunology . A.B. 1961. M.A. 1963, 
University of (California at Berkeley; 
Ph.D. 1968. Rutgers Universit\ 

Posner, Aaron S., Profes.sor of Biochemistry. 
B.S. 1941. Rutgers Universiti' M.S. 
1949, Polytechnic Institute oi 
Brooklyn; Ph.D. 1954, University of 
Liege ( Belgium ) 

Prince, Alfred M., Clinical A.s.sociate 

Professor of Pathology . A.B. 1949. Yale 
University; M.A. 1951, Columbia 
University; M.D. 1955. W estern 
Reser\e I'niversity 

Quimby, Fred, A.s.sociate Profes.sor of 

Pathology . \ .D M. 19^0. University of 
Pennsylvania School of Veterinary 
Medicine; Ph.D. 19^4, Universitv of 
Pennsylvania (iraduate School of Arts 
and Sciences 

Rabellino, Enrique M.. A.ssi.stant Professor of 
Medicine. B.S. 1959. Institute J. M. Paz 
(Argentina); M.D. 1965. Universityof 
(x)rdoba (Argentina) 

Rachele. Julian R.. Emeritus Professor of 
Biochemistry . B.A. 1934, M.S. 1935, 
Ph.D. 1939, New ^'ork University 

Ra\etch. Jeffrey A., A.s.sistant Profes.sor of 
Molecular Bi()log> and \ irology B S 
19^3. ^ ale University: Ph D 19^8. 
Rockefeller University: M D 19"9. 
Cornell I nixersirv 



9 



Rayson, Barbara, Assistant Professor of Physi- 
ology and Biophysics; Assistant 
Professor of Medicine in Physiology. 
B SC. 1972, Ph.D. 1976, University of 
Melbourne (Australia) 

Reidenberg, Marcus M., Professor of Pharma- 
cology. B.S. 1954, Cornell University; 
M.D. 1958, Temple University 

Reis, Donald J., George C. Cotzias Distin- 
guished Professor of Neurology. A.B. 
1953, M.D. 1956, Cornell University 

Rifkind, Arleen B., Professor of Pharma- 
cology; Associate Professor of Medi- 
cine. B.A. I960, Bryn Mawr College; 
M.D. 1964, New York University 

Rifkind, Richard A., Professor of Cell Biology 
and Genetics. B.S. 1951, Yale Univer- 
sity; M.D. 1955, Columbia University 

Riker, Walter F. Jr., Professor of Pharma- 
cology. B.S. 1939, Columbia Univer- 
sity; M.D. 1943, Cornell University 

Risley, Michael, Associate Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy. B.S. 1970, 
Manhattan College; Ph.D. 1976, City 
University of New York 

Roberts, Richard B., Professor of Medicine. 
B.A. 1955, Dartmouth College; M.D. 
1959, Temple University 

Rodman, Toby C, Professor of Cell Biology 
and Anatomy. B.S. 1937, Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy and Science; M.S. 
1961, Ph.D. 1963, New York 
University 

Rodriguez- Boulan, Enrique, Associate 
Professor of Cell Biology and 
Anatomy. B.A. 1963, National College 
of Buenos Aires; M.D. 1970, University 
of Buenos Aires 

Rosen, Ora M., Professor of Molecular 
Biology and Virology. B.A. 1956, 
Barnard C:ollege; M.D. I960, Columbia 
I nivcrsity 

Rottenberg, David A., Associate Professor of 
Ncurolog)'. B. A. 1963, I Iniversity of 
Michigan; M.Sc 1967, University of 
Cambridge (England ); M.D. 1969, 
Harvard University 

Rubin, Albert L., Professor of Biochemistry 
in Surgery, M.I) 1950, Cornell 
I nivcrsity 



Ruggiero, David A., Assistant Professor of 

Neurobiology in Neurology, B.A. 1972, 
Queens College of the City University 
of New York; M.A. 1976, M. Phil. 
1977, Ph.D. 1977, Columbia 
University 

Safai, Bijan, Associate Professor of Immu- 
nology. M.D. 1965, University of 
Teheran Medical School (Iran) 

Santos-Buch, Charles A., Professor of 

Pathology. A.B. 1953, Harvard Univer- 
sity; M.D. 1957, Cornell University 

Sarkar, Nurul H., Associate Professor of 

Molecular Biology and Virology. B.S. 
1957, M.S. I960, Ph.D. 1966, Univer- 
sity of Calcutta (India) 

Saxena, Brij B., Professor of Endocrinology in 
Obstetrics and Gynecology. Ph.D. 
1954, University of Lucknow (India); 
D. Sc. 1957, University of Miinster 
(German); Ph.D. 1961, University of 
Wisconsin 

Schneider, Allan S., Associate Professor of 
Cell Biology and Genetics. B.Ch.E. 

1961, Rensselaer Polytechnic Insti- 
tute; M.S. 1963, Pennsylvania State 
University; Ph.D. 1968, University of 
California at Berkeley 

Schubert, Edward T., Assistant Professor of 
Biochemistry in Pediatrics. B.S. 1949, 
M.S. 1952,. Ph.D. 1959, Fordham 
University 

Schwartz, Morton K., Professor of Develop- 
mental Therapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. B.A. 1948, Lehigh University; 
Ph.D. 1952, Boston University 

Sechzer, Jeri A., Associate Professor of 

Psychology in Psychiatry. B.S. 1956, 
New York University; M.A. 1961, Ph.D. 

1962, University of Pennsylvania 

vSen, (ianes C, Assistant Professor of Molec- 
ular Biology and Virology. B.S. 1965, 
M.S. 1967, Calcutta University (India); 
Ph.D. 1974, McMaster University 
((.anada) 

Sentertlt, Liurence B., Professor of Microbi- 
ology. B.S. 1949, M.S. 1950, University 
of Florida; Sc.D. 1 955, Johns Hopkins 
University 



98 



Shapiro, Joan Rankin, Assistant Professor of 
Cell Biology in Neurology. B.S. I960, 
Westminster College; M.S. 1968, New 
York University; M.A. 1970, Hofstra 
University; Ph.D. 1979, Cornell 
University 

Sheflfery, Michael, Assistant Professor of 

Molecular Biology and Virology. A.B. 
1975, M.S. 1977, Ph.D. 1981, Prin- 
ceton University 

Shen, Fung- Win, Associate Professor of 

Immunology, B.S. 1968, Fu-Jen Cath- 
olic University (Taiwan); M.S. 1971, 
Ph.D. 1973, University of New Mexico 

Sherline, Peter, Associate Professor of Medi- 
cine; A.B. and M.D. 1968, Boston 
University Medical School 

Sherman, Merry R., Associate Professor of 
Cell Biology and Genetics. B.A. 1961, 
Wellesley College; M.A. 1963, Ph.D. 
1 966, University of California at 
Berkeley 

Silagi, Selma, Professor of Genetics in Obstet- 
rics and Gynecology. A.B. 1936, 
Hunter College; Ph.D. 1961, Columbia 
University 

Siniscalco, Marcello, Professor of Cell 
Biology and Genetics. M.D. 1948., 
Uniwrsity of Naples (Italy) 

Sirlin, Julio L, Professor of Cell Biology and 
Anatomy. D.Sc. 1953, University of 
Buenos Aires (Argentina) 

Sirotnak, Francis M., Professor of Develop- 
mental Therapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. B.S. 1950, University of Scranton; 
Ph.D. 1954, University of Maryland 

Siskind, Gregory W., Professor of Medicine. 
B.A. 1955, Cornell University; M.D. 
1959, New York University 

Smith, Gerard P., Professor of Psychiatry 
(Behavioral Science). B.S. 1956, St. 
Joseph's College; M.D. 1960, Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania 

Sofifer, Richard L., Professor of Biochemistr\' 
and Medicine. B.A. 1954, Amherst 
College; M.D. 1958, Harvard 
University 

Sonenberg, Martin, Professor of Cell Biology 
and Genetics. B.S. 1941, University of 
Pennsylvania; M.D. 1944, Ph.D. 1952, 
New York University 



Stavnezer, Edward, Adjunct Assistant 

Professor of Molecular Biology and 
Virology. B.A. 1965, M.S. 1967, Univer 
sity of Connecticut; Ph.D. 1971, Johns 
Hopkins University 

Stenzel, Kurt H., Professor of Medicine; 

Professor of Biochemistry in Surgery. 
B.S. 1954, New York University; M.D. 
1958, Cornell University 

Stephenson, John L, Professor of Biomathe- 
matics in Physiology. B.A. 1943, 
Harvard University; M.D. 1949, Univer- 
sity of Illinois 

Sternberg, Stephen S., Professor of Develop- 
mental Therapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. B.A. 1941, Colby College; M.D. 
1944, New York University 

Stokes, Peter E., Associate Professor of Medi- 
cine and Psychiatry. B.S. 1958, Trinity 
College; M.D. 1952, Cornell University 

Stutman, Osias, Professor of Immunology . 

BA. 1950, Colegio Nacional Sarmienio 
(Argentina); M.D. 1957, Buenos Aires 
University Medical School (Argentina) 

Sugg, John v.. Emeritus Professor " Microbi- 
ology. A.B. 1926, M.S. 1928, Ph D. 
1931, Vanderbilt University 

Sussdorf, Dieter H., Associate Professor of 

Microbiology. B.A. 1952, University of 
Missouri; Ph.D. 1956, University of 
Chicago 

Szabo, Paul, Assistant Professor of Molecular 
Biology in Medicine; B.S. 1971, Ph.D. 
1974, University of Illinois 

Szeto, Hazel H., Associate Professor of Phar- 
macology. B.S. 1972, Indiana Univer- 
sity; Ph.D., M.D. 1977, Cornell 
University 

Tate, Suresh S., Associate Professor of 

Biochemistry. B.Sc. 1958, M.SC. 1960, 
University of Baroda ( India ); Ph.D. 
1963, 1'niversity of London ( England ) 

Teitelman. Gladys N., Assistant Professor of 
Neurobiology in Neurology. Licen- 
diada in Biology 1962, University of 
Buenos Aires ( Argentina ); Ph D 1 9^ 1 . 
University of Pennsylvania 

Thaler, Howard T., A.ssi.stant Professor of 
Developmental ITierapy and Clinical 
Investigation B A 196". University of 
California at Los Angeles; Ph I) 19^-4. 
State I ni\ ersity of .New ^ ork at MufTalo 



99 



Towncs-Andcrson, Ellen, Assistant Professor 
of Ph\ siolog)' and Biophysics. B.A. 
1968, Connecticut College; M.A. 
1971, Universit)' of California at 
Berkeley; Ph.D. 1980, Boston Univer- 
sit)' School of Medicine 

Traktman, Paula, Assistant Professor of Cell 
Biolog)' and Anatomy. A.B. 1974, 
Radcliffe College, Harvard University; 
Ph.D. 1981, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technolog)' 

Tung, Jwu-Sheng, Assistant Professor of 
Immunolog)'. B.A. 1959, National 
Taiwan Universit}- (Taiwan); M.S. 
1966, Ph.D. 1971, University of Cali- 
fornia at Berkeley 

Udenfriend. Sidney, Adjunct Professor of 

Biochemistr)-. B.S. 1939, Cit>' College 
of New York; M.S. 1942, Ph.D. 1948, 
New York University' 

Urban. Bernd W., Assistant Professor of Physi- 
ology and Biophysics. Diplom der 
Physik (Master) 1974, University of 
Karlsruhe (West Germany); Ph.D. 
1978, University of Cambridge 
(England) 

Wall, Doris A., Assistant Professor of Cell 
Biolog) and Anatomy. B.A. 1970, 
University of New Hampshire; Ph.D. 
1975, Cornell University- 
Wang, Chang Yi, Assistant Professor of Immu- 
nology. B.Sc. 1973, National Taiwan 
University ; Ph.D. 1979, The Rocke- 
feller University 

Watanabe, Kyoichi A., Professor of Develop- 
mental ITierapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. Ph.D. 1963. Hokkaido University 
(Japan ) 

Weinstein, Alan M.. Assistant Profes.sor of 

Physiology and Biophysics. A.B. 1971, 
Princeton University; M.D. 1975, 
llarxard I niversity 



Weksler, Babette B., Professor of Medicine. 
B.A. 1958, Sw-arthmore College; M.D. 
1963, Columbia University 

Weksler, Marc E., Ir\ing Sherwood Wright 
Professor of Geriatrics; Professor of 
Medicine. B.A. 1958, Swarthmore 
College; M.D. 1962, Columbia 
University 

Wellner, Daniel, Associate Professor of 
Biochemistry. A.B. 1956, Harvard 
University; Ph.D. 1961, Tufts 
University 

Windhager, Erich E., Maxwell M. Upson 
Professor of Physiology and 
Biophysics. M.D. 1954, University of 
Vienna (Austria) 

Wong, George Y., Assistant Professor of 

Developmental Therapy and Clinical 
Investigation. B.A. 1973, Rice Univer- 
sity; M.A. 1975, Ph.D. 1978, Harvard 
University 

Woods, Kenneth R., Associate Professor of 
Biochemistry . B.A. 1948, Arizona State 
University; Ph.D. 1955, University of 
Minnesota 

Yang, Soo Young, Assistant Professor of 
Immunology. M.S. 1972, Minnesota 
State University; Ph.D. 1981, New 
York University 

Young, Robert C, Assistant Professor of 

Psychiatry in Neurobiology. B.A. 1969, 
Williams College; M.D. 1974, Cornell 
University 

Zakim, David, Vincent Astor Distinguished 
Professor of Medicine. B.A. 1956, 
Cornell University; M.D. 1961, State 
University of New York Downstate 
Medical Center 

/eitz, l.ouis. Associate Professor of Develop- 
mental llierapy and (-linical Investiga- 
tion. A.B. 1948, University of Cali- 
fornia; Ph.D. 1962, Stanford University 



100 



Degree Recipients 1984-85 

Doctors of Philosophy 



Acosta, Alberto M., B.A. 1978, Columbia 

University. Major: Pathology. Havana, 
Cuba. Major Sponsor: Dr. Charles A. 
Santos-Buch. Thesis: "Autoimmune 
Cardiomyopathy Induced by Trypano- 
soma cruzt\ 

Albert, Vivian Risa, B.A. 1979, M.S. 1980, 
Stanford University. Major: Neurobi- 
ology and Behavior. Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia. Major Sponsor: Dr. Tong H. Joh. 
Thesis: "Studies on the Biochemistry 
and Molecular Biology of the Neuro- 
transmitter Biosynthetic Enzyme 
Aromatic L-Amino Decarboxylase". 

Braam-Markson, Janet, B.S. 1980, Southern 
Illinois. Major: Molecular Biology and 
Virology. Chicago, Illinois. Major 
Sponsor: Dr. Robert Krug. Thesis: 
Molecular Analysis of a Eukaryotic 
Transcription Complex, the Influenza 
Viral P Protein Complex Catalyzing 
Capped RNA- Primed Viral mRNA 
Synthesis". 

Bridges, Richard J., A.S. 1975, Santa Rosa 

Junior College; B.S. 1977, University of 
California at Davis. Major Biochem- 
istry. Santa Rosa, California. Major 
Sponsor: Dr. Alton Meister. Thesis: 
"Studies on the Transport and Metabo- 
lism of 7-Clutamyl Amino Acids and 
Glutathione". 

Colacino, Joseph M., B.A. 1975, University of 
Connecticut; M.S. 1979, Southern 
Connecticut State College. Major: 
Immunobiology. New Haven, Connect- 
icut. Major Sponsor: Dr. Carlos Lopes. 
Thesis: "Studies On The Antiviral 
Activity of 2'-Fluoro-5-lodo- 
Arabinosylcytosine (FIAC)". 

Conti, Peter S., B.A. 1978, Johns Hopkins 
University. Major: Developmental 
Therapy and Clinical Investigation. 
Yonkers, New York. Major Sponsor: 
Dr. John S. Laughlin. Thesis: 'S>'nthesis 
and Application of Biologically Active 
Molecules with Short-Lived Isotopes 
for the in tm>o Study of Normal and 
Malignant Tissues 



Cordon-Cardo, Carlos B., M.D. 1980, Autono 
mous University (Spain). Major: Cell 
Biology and (ienetics. Calella, Spain. 
Major Sponsor: Dr. Myron R. Melamcd. 
Thesis: "Immunoanatomic Dissection 
of the Normal Adult Kidney and 
Urinary Tract". 

Fairfield, Alexandra, B.S. 1978, Cornell 

University'. Major: Microbiology'. Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. Major Sponsor: 
Dr. Steven R. Meshnick. ITiesis: 
Oxidant Defenses of Malarial Parasites: 
Possible Dependence on Host 
Enzymes". 

Hinman, Lois M., B.S. 1969, Simmons 

College. Major: Biochemistry'. New 
Haven, Connecticut. Major Sponsor: 
Dr. John P. Blass. Thesis: "Characteriza- 
tion of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Phos- 
phatase From Pigeon Liver and Its 
Application to The Study Of A P\'m- 
vate Dehydrogenase C.omplex Abnor- 
mality In Leigh's Disease FP roblasts". 

Hughes, Miranda J., B.S. 1978, State i;niver- 
sity of New York. Major: Pharma- 
cology. Sydney, Australia. Major 
Sponsor: Dr. Arleen B. Rifkind. Thesis: 
"Prostaglandin Synthesis By (.hick 
Embryo Lung: Effects of Polychlori- 
nated Biphenyls". 

Kaseman, Deborah S., B.S 1978, North 
Dakota State University . Major: 
Biochemistry . A.shley. North Dakota. 
Major Sponsor: Dr. Alton Meister. 
Thesis: "Carbamyl Phosphate Synthe- 
tase: Selective Inactivation by Hydroxy 
lamine and Enzymatic S\nthc.scs of 
Urea (Acle Intermediates labeled 
with "N or "C". 

Klein, Renate F.. B.A 1977, New York 

University. Major: Pathology . Munich. 
We.st (icrmany. Major Sponsor: I)r 
Carl (i. Becker, niesis: "Inimunoglo- 
bulin I.s()t\pc Expression to Tobacco 
(ilycoprotein in llie Human". 



101 



Levene, Richard B., B.S. 1972, Tulane Univer- 
sity; M.A. 1980, State University of 
New York. Major: Physiology and 
Biophysics,. New York, New York. 
Major Sponsor: Dr. Enrique M. Rabel- 
lino. Thesis: "Human Megakaryocyte 
Progenitors: Identification and Charac- 
terization By Cell Component 
Analysis". 

Louie, Elaine, B.S. 1974, Brooklyn College. 

Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. New 
York, New York. Major Sponsor: Dr. 
James L. German III. Thesis: "Cytolog- 
ical And Biochemical Characterization 
Of Roberts's Syndrome Cells". 

Nichols, Margaret E., A.I.M.L.S. 1962, Sir 

John Cass College (England); F.I.M.LS. 
1964, Mid Essex College (England). 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
England. Major Sponsor: Dr. Fred H. 
Allen, Jr. Thesis: "Monoclonal Anti- 
bodies to Human Blood Groups: A 
Method and Its Application". 

Peterson, Christine, B.S. 1976, Herbert H. 

Lehman College; M A. 1978, University 
of California, Santa Barbara. Major: 
Neurobiology and Behavior. Bronx, 
New York. Major Sponsor: Dr. Gary 
Gibson. Thesis: "The Interaction of 
Calcium Homeostasis With Acetylcho- 
line Metabolism And 3,4- 
Diaminopyridine During Hypoxia And 
Aging". 

Reinach, Fernando de C, B.S. 1978, M.S. 
1 980, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Brooklyn, New York. Major Sponsor: 
Dr. Donald A. Fischman. Thesis: 
"Monoclonal Antibodies to Muscle 
Thick Filament Proteins: Characteriza- 
tion of C-protein Isoforms and Recom- 
binant DNA Analysis of Myosin Light 
Chain Conformation". 

Roux, Linda M., S B. 1978, Massachusetts 

Institute of Technology. Major Immu- 
nobiology. Los Angeles, (.alifornia. 
Major Sponsor: Dr. Kenneth (). Lloyd. 
ITicsis: "(ilycosylation of a Differentia- 
tion Antigen in Melanocytes and 
Melanoma.s". 



Sadlik, John R., B.S. 1973, St. John's Univer- 
sity. Major: Immunobiology. New 
York, New York. Major Sponsor: Dr. 
John W. Hadden. Thesis: "Characteriza- 
tion Of Lymphocyte-Produced Macro- 
phage Growth Factor And Its Action 
On The Proliferation Of 
Macrophages". 

Spiegel, Mary K., B.S. 1978, Duke University. 
Major: Pharmacology. Knoxville, 
Tennessee. Major Sponsor: Dr. Gavril 
W. Pasternak. Thesis: "Biochemical 
and Pharmacological Evidence for 
Multiple Mu Opiate Receptors in the 
Rat". 

Masters of Science 

Dorato, Andrea L, B.Sc, 1982, McGill Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biology and 
Virology. Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 
Major Sponsor: Dr. David Donner. 
Thesis: "Regulation of the Expression 
and Affinity States of the Rat Hepatic 
Glucagon Receptor". 

Matyas, John R., A.B. 1978, Cornell Univer- 
sity. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Major 
Sponsor: Dr. Peter G. Bullough. Thesis: 
"The Structure and Function of 
Tendon and Ligament Insertions into 
Bone". 

Rubock, Melissa J., B.A. 1982, University of 
Pennsylvania. Major: Molecular 
Biology and Virology. Levittown, New 
York. Major Sponsor: Dr. Selina Chen- 
Kiang. Thesis: "A Network of Telo- 
meric Associations Among Episomal 
rDNA Molecules in Plasmodial 
Nucleoli of Physanim polycephalum'\ 



Students 1985-86 

Candidates for the Degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy 

Abate, Corinne, B.A. 1983, Fordham Univer- 
sity. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Brooklyn, New York 



102 



Ark, Belinda C, A.B. 1984, Cornell Univer- 
sity. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
San Francisco, California 

Arnold, James B., B.A. 1982, Columbia 
College. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. New York, New York 

Askari, Frederick K., B.A. 1981, Cornell 
University, Major: Pharmacology. 
Toledo, Ohio 

'^Batter, David K., B.S. 1979, University of 
Connecticut. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. New Haven, Connecticut 

Bauchwitz, Robert P., BA. 1982, Harvard 
University. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Wilmington, Delaware 

Belkowski, Unda S., B A. 1979, Rutgers 

University. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Perth Amboy, New Jersey 

Berger, Scott B., B A. 1983, Emory Univer- 
sity. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Bergold, Peter J., B.S. 1977, Trinity College. 
Major: Molecular Biology. Teaneck, 
New Jersey 

Blank, Seymour G., B.E.E. 1965, City Univer- 
sity of New York: M.E.E. 1968, New 
York University. Major: Physiology and 
Biophysics. Brooklyn, New York 

Brennan, Lynn A., BA. 1974, Rutgers Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biology. New 
York, New York 

Brock, Alice M., A.B. 1978, Smith College; 
M.S.H.S. 1980, Northeastern Univer- 
sity. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics, 
Scarsdale, New York 

^^Brodeur, David, B.S. 1979, College of 
William and Mary. Major: Molecular 
Biology. Brooklyn, New York 

Brooks, David G., BA. 1982, Universit>' of 
Colorado; M.S. 1984, Michigan State 
University. Major: Cell Biolog\' and 
Genetics. Rochester, Michigan 

Buck, Charles R., B.S. 1983, College of Idaho. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. Cald- 
well, Idaho 

Chan, Marion Man-Ying. B.S. 1975, M.S. 

1 978, University' of Maryland. Major: 
Immunology. Hong Kong 



Chaum, Edward, B.A. 1979, Johns Hopkins 
University. Major: Cell Biolog)' and 
Genetics. Los Angeles, California 

Chen, Yao-Tseng, B. Med. 1981, College of 
Medicine, National Taiwan University. 
Major: Immunology. Tainan, Taiwan 

^^Choy, Janet Wing, A.B. 1977, Smith 
College. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Wayne, New Jersey 

Clurman, Bruce E., B.A. 1981, University of 
Virginia. Major: Molecular Biolog>'. 
Cherry Hill, New Jersey 

^^Colmenares, Clemencia, B.S. 1976, Yale 
University. Major: Immunology. 
Bogota, Colombia 

Davatelis, George N., B A. 1977, Montclair 
State College; M.S. 1979, University' of 
Hawaii. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Paterson, New Jersey 

Dicker, Adam P., B.A. 1984, Columbia 

University. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Great Neck, New York 

DiPaola, Eugene A., B.S. 1974, Manhattan 
College. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Boston, Massachr etts 

DiSanto, James P., B.A. 1983, Johns Hopkins 
University. Major: Development 
Therapy and Clinical Investigation. 
Cherry Hill, New Jersey 

Dogramajian, Mary Ellen, B.S. 1977, M.S. 

1983, St. John's University. Major: Phar- 
macology. Huntington, New York 

Doucette, Lynn Anne, B.Sc. 1981, McMaster 
ITniversity (Canada). Major: Cell 
Biology and Genetics. Toronto, 
Canada 

Drozdoflf, Vladimir V., BA. 1979, Bowdoin 
College. Major: Developmental 
Therapy and Clinical Investigation. 
Cooper, Maine 

Eibl, Beatrice S., M.S. 1982, University of 
Vienna. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Vienna, Austria 



' *in absentia 
leave of absent e 
t andiclatc- tor dc-gree onh 



103 



Einheber, Steven, B.S. 1981, George Wash- 
ington University. Major: Cell Biology 
and Genetics. Washington, D.C. 

Evans, Elizabeth V., B.A. 1980, Bennington 
College. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. La Jolla, California 

Febbraio, Maria, B.S. 1982, Fordham Univer- 
sity. Major: Microbiology, Immunology 
and Pathology. Staten Island, Nev^ 
York 

Firpo, Meri T., B.A. 1984, Carroll College. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Helena, Montana 

Foxman, Brett, B.A. 1982, Boston University; 
M.D. 1982, Boston University School 
of Medicine. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Penn Valley, Pennsylvania 

Gamble, David A., D.V.M. 1978, Washington 
State University. Major: Microbiology, 
Immunology and Pathology. Ithaca, 
New York 

Green, William Nathan, B.Sc. 1978, Univer- 
sity' of Toronto. Major: Physiology and 
Biophysics. Buffalo, New York 

Groden, Joanna L, B.A. 1978, Middlebury 
College. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Gulati, Poonam, B.A. 1982, Cornell Univer- 
sity. Major: Microbiology, Immunology 
and Pathology. Collins, New York 

Gummere, Gregory R., B.A. 1979, M.S. 1981, 
University of Cincinnati. Major Cell 
Biology and Genetics. Cincinnati, 
Ohio 

Gundersen, Doris I., B.A. 1977, Clark Univer- 
sity. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
West Babylon, New York 

Hachfeld, Ughetta del Balzo. B.A. 1981, 

Barnard College. Major. Pharmacology. 
Rome, Italy 

Hariri, Robert, B.A. 1980, Columbia College. 
Major: Microbiology, Immunolog)' and 
Pathology . I orcst Hills, New York 

Harris, Andrea, B.A. 1979, Boston University. 
Major: Microbiology , Immunology and 
Pathology . Hampton Bays, New York 

Harris, Paul E., A.B. 1978, University of Cali- 
fornia. Major: Biology and 
Genetics. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 



Heinrich, N.Julia, B.A. 1977, Brown Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biology. New 
York, New York 

^^Hodes, Marquis Z., A.B. 1973, Indiana 

University at Bloomington; M. S. 1976, 
Indiana University at Indianapolis. 
Major: Immunobiology. Indianapolis, 
Indiana 

Hume, Clifford R., B.A. 1983, Carleton 

College. Major: Immunology. Incline 
Village, Nevada 

Hwang, Onyou, A.B. 1982. Smith College. 
Major: Neurobiology and Behavior. 
Seoul, Korea 

Jaudon, Carol E., B.S. 1981, Mississippi 

University for Women. Major: Molec- 
ular Biology. Arlington, Texas 

Jenkins, Deborah L, B.A. 1983, Williams 
College. Major: Biochemistry. 
Amherst, Massachusetts 

Jeong, Gajin, B.S. 1976, M.S. 1978, Seoul 
National University. Major: Cell 
Biology and Genetics. Daejeon, Korea 

Kanter, Madge R., B.A. 1982, University of 
California at Santa Cruz. Major: Molec- 
ular Biology. Palo Alto, California 

Kelly, Catherine D., B.A. 1981, State Univer- 
sity of New York at Purchase. Major: 
Microbiology, Immunology and 
Pathology. Rockville Center, New 
York 

Kenny, Mark K, B.A. 1983, Wesleyan Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biology. Chap- 
paqua. New York 

^>Klein, Deborah, B.A. 1973, New York 

University; M.S. 1978, Fordham Univer- 
sity. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Teaneck, New Jersey 

Kornack, David R., B.S. 1983, Northern Illi- 
nois University. Major Neurobiology 
and Behavior. Lombard, Illinois 

Kunzi, Myriam S., B.A. 1984, Wellesley 
College. -Major: (xll Biology and 
Cienetics. Upper Malboro, Maryland 

Lader Eric Scott, B.S. 1981, Brooklyn 
(College. Major: (xll Biology and 
(ienetics. Brooklyn, New York 



104 



Lee, Myung Soo, M.D. 1979, M.M.S. 1980 
Seoul National University (Korea). 
Major: Inimunolog}'. Dongdaemum-ku, 
Seoul, Korea 

Lee William T.L., B.A. 1978, Johns Hopkins 
University. Major: (x'll Biologv' and 
Genetics. Charlotte, North Carolina 

Le Strange, Renee C, BA. 1978, University of 
North Carolina. Major: Immunology. 
Long Branch, New Jersey 

Levine, Sulamita, M.D. 1975, M.S. 1980, 
University' of Zulia Medical School 
(Venezuela). Major Neurobiolog}' and 
Behavior. Maracaibo, Venezuela 

Li, Luyiian, Graduate Certificate 1982, 

Sichuan University. Major: Biochem- 
istry. Zunyi City, People's Republic of 
China 

Lufkin, Thomas C, A.B. 1981, University of 
California, Berkeley. Major: Molecular 
Biology. Birmingham, Michigan 

Maher, Kevin J., B.S. 1984, Manhattan 

College. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology and Pathology. Yonkers, New 
York 

Mandell, James W., A.B. 1984, Cornell 

University. Major: Neurobiology- and 
Behavior. Charlottesville, Virginia 

Martinez, Humberto Jose, M.D. 1975, Univer- 
sity of Zulia Medical School (Vene- 
zuela). Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Maracaibo, Venezuela 

^ ^Maurer, David H., A.B. 1977, ComeU 
University. Major: Immunology. 
Newburgh, New York 

Michitsch, Richard W., B.A. 1975, M.S. 1978, 
New York University'. Major: Molecular 
Biology. Brooklyn, New York 

Mok, Minsen, B.A. 1982, Johns Hopkins 
University. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Convent Station, New Jersey 

Moncrieflf, Patrice M., B.S. 1984, Boston 
College. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Park Ridge, New Jersey 

Montgomery , Kate T., B.A. 19^8, Vassar 
College. Major: Molecular Biology . 
Chappaqua, New York 

Mynarcik, Dennis B.S. 19^8, rni\crsity of 
Texas at San Antonio. Major: Biochem- 
istry. San Antonio, Texas 



Nicholson, Andrew C., B.S. 1973, D.V.M. 
1976, Michigan State University. 
Major: Microbiology , immunology and 
Pathology . Bangor, Maine 

Nocka, Karl H., B.A 1983, Bowdoin C.ollege. 
Major: Molecular Biology Ridgewood, 
New Jersey 

Parada, Camilo A., B.S. 1978, Licence Biology 
(Master of Science) 1981, Catholic 
University of Valparaiso (Chile). 
Major: Molecular Biology . White 
Plains, New \'ork 

Pearse, Roger N., B A. 1977, Dartmouth 

College. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology and Pathology . Newport, 
Rhode Island 

Puelle, Rose Mary Shaffer. B.S. 1980, Loyola 
College. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology and Pathology. Baltimore, 
Maryland 

Qiu, Feihua, M.D. 1979, Beijing Medical 
College. Major: Molecular Biology . 
Shanghai, People's Republic of China 

Rico-Hesse, Rebecca, B.S. 1978, University of 
Nebraska; M.P.H. 1980, University of 
Minnesota. Major: Microbiology . 
Immunology and Pathology. Los 
Angeles, California 

^^Riley, Richard J., B.S. 1972, Manhattan 

College; M.S. 1976. New York Univer- 
sity. Major: Developmental ITierapy 
and Clinical Investigation. Yonkers, 
New York 

Robertson, Donna A.. B.S. 1979, Syracuse 
Universirv. Major: Pharmacology . 
White Plains, New \ ork 

-^Rosenberg, Charles D.. A.B. 1978, Wash- 
ington University; M.S. 19"'9, State 
llniversity of New '^'ork at Buftalo. 
Major: Ct'W Biology and Genetics. 
Merrick. New '^'ork 

Rosenberg, Hlizabeth A.. B.A. 1981. W esley an 
University. Major: Biochemistry. New 
York, New York 

Rubino, Heidi M.. B.S. 1980. Muhlenberg 
College. .Major: Biochemistry New 
York, New \ork 

Rubino, Stephen D.. B.S. 1980. Muhlenberg 
(x)llege. .Major: .Microbiology . Immu 
nology and Pathology . Harrison, .New 
^ork 



lOS 



Russell, David S., BA. 1982, Oberlin College. 
Major: Molecular Biology. Chagrin 
Falls, Ohio 

Sehgal, Amita, B.Sc. 1981, Delhi University 
(India); M.Sc. 1983, Jawaharial Nehru 
University School of Life Sciences 
(India); Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. New Delhi, India 

Shapiro, Geoffrey I., BA. 1981, Columbia 
University. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Schenectady, New York 

SignoreUi, Kathy L, BA. 1982, WeUesley 
College. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Strongsville, Ohio 

^^Sordillo, Emilia M., A.B. 1976, Harvard 

University; M.D. 1980, Cornell Univer- 
sity. Major: Immunology. New York, 
New York 

Stinavage, Paul Stanley, AA.S. 1977, State 

University of New York at Morrisville; 
B.S. 1981, Marywood College. Major: 
Microbiology, Immunology and 
Pathology. Susquehanna, Penns>dvania 

Tantravahi, JogiRaju v., BA. 1984, Columbia 
University. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Waltham, Massachusetts 

^^Taylor, Colleen, B.S. 1980, Siena College. 
Major: Microbiology, Immunology' and 
Pathology. Newark, New Jersey 

Teumer, Jeffrey K., BA. 1979, Colgate 

University. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Sheboygan, Wisconsin 

Thormodsson, Finnbogi R., B.Sc. 1980, 

University of Iceland. Major: Neurobi- 
ology and Behavior. Reykjavik, Iceland 

Till, Martha L, B.S. 1975, Colorado State 

University. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology and Pathology. Chicago, Illinois 

Underwood, Mark, BA. 1981, University of 
Vermont. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. St. Albans, Vermont 

-^Vigar, Diane C, B.S. 1976, M.S. 1981, 

Wagner College. Major: Microbiology, 
Immunology' and Pathology. Staten 
Island, New York 

von Kreutcr, Betsy F., B.S. 1982, University of 
Vermont Major; Microbiology, Immu- 
nology and Pathology. Darien, 
Connecticut 



Walewski, Jose L, B.S. 1980, Pennsylvania 
State University; MA. 1984, Boston 
University. Major: Pharmacology. 
Newton, Massachusetts 

Wallace, David, B.S. 1966, City University of 
New York. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology and Pathology. New York, New 
York 

Weinstein, Catherine Ippolito, B.S. 1982, 
State University of New York at Stony 
Brook. Major: Biochemistry. East 
Meadow, New York 

Weisman, Steven M., B.S., BA. 1981, Fair- 
leigh Dickinson University. Major: 
Pharmacology. Kansas City, Missouri 

Wong, Gwendolyn T., B.S. 1984, McMaster 
University (Canada). Major: Cell 
Biology and Genetics. Hamilton, 
Ontario, Canada 

Wu, Kai-Yuan, BA. 1983, New York Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Shanghai, People's Republic of China 

Yan, Ning, Diploma 1980, Nanjing Univer- 
sity. Major: Biochemistry. Nanjing, 
People's Republic of China 

Yang, Jung-Mou, M B. 1979, National 

Defense Medical Center. Major: Physi- 
ology and Biophysics. Taipei, Taiwan, 
Republic of China 

Candidates for the Degree of 
Master of Science 

Gudewill, Ellen V., B.S. 1979, State University 
of New York at Stony Brook. Major: 
Microbiology, Immunology' and 
Pathology. Babylon, New York 

Mirenda, Carol A., B.A. 1979, Rutgers Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biology. Engle- 
wood, New Jersey 

Ruether, James E., BA. 1981, University of 
Colorado. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Albany, New York 

Entering Students 

Barnhart, Kerry M., B.S. 1983, M.S. 1985, 
University of Arizona. Major: Molec- 
ular Biology. Tucson, Arizona 



106 



Bayer, Virginia E., B.A./B.S. 1981, University 
of California. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Newport Beach, California 

Blumenthal, Jeffrey A., BA. 1985, Vassar 
College. Major: Immunology. Glen- 
wood, Illinois 

Guerdon, Elizabeth P., B.S. 1985, Siena 

College. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology and Pathology. Loudonville, 
New York 

Donnelly, Robert E., B.S. 1985, University of 
California. Major: Biochemistry. Cuper- 
tino, California 

Ennulat, Cynthia L, BA. 1980, State Univer- 
sity of New York, Oswego; M.S. 1985, 
Syracuse University. Major: Cell 
Biology and Genetics. Brewerton, 
New York 

Escandon, Enrique M., B.S. 1983, M.S. 1985, 
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de 
Mexico. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Mexico City, Mexico 

Femandez-Almonacid, Rafael, B.Sc. 1980, 
M.Sc. 1985, Universidad Austral De 
Chile. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Valdivia, Chile 

Fotheringham, Robert Scott, B.Sc. 1985, 

University of Guelph. Major: Molecular 
Biology. Ontario, Canada 

Greenlee, Paul G., B.S. 1977, Oklahoma State 
University; D.V.M. 1980, Oklahoma 
State University; M.S. 1982, Oklahoma 
State University. Major: Microbiology, 
Immunology, and Pathology. New 
York, New York 

Hahn, Mounou, B.S. 1985, University of 

Wisconsin. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Seoul, Korea 

Hahn, Soonjung Lucia, B.S. 1983, Seoul 

National University; M.S. 1985, Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin. Major: Molecular 
Biology. Seoul, Korea. 

Heam, Timothy J., B.S. 1983, Penn State 
University. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Camp Hill, Pennsylvania 

Hodgins, Gregory W. L, B.Sc. 1985, Univer- 
sit\' of Toronto. Major: Immunology. 
Ontario, Canada. 



Hong, Guangyuan, B.S. 1982, M.S. 1985, 
Peking University. Major: Molecular 
Biology. Peking, People's Republic of 
China 

Kim, Chul Geun, B.S. 1981, Han Yang Univer- 
sity; M.S. 1983, Seoul National Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biology. Yesan, 
Korea 

Lee, Jin-Moo, B A. 1985, Yale University. Fort 
Washington, Maryland 

Leonard, Christopher, J., B.S. 1985, Cornell 
University. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology and Pathology. Rochester, New 
York 

Lisanti, Michael P., B A. 1985, New York 
University. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Rockaway Beach, New York 

Litherland, Sally A, B.S. 1981, University of 
Florida; M.S. 1983 University of 
Florida. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology and Pathology. Satellite Beach, 
Florida 

Uu, Su, B.S. 1982, Shanghai First Medical 
College. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Hunan, China 

Lu, Bai, B.S. 1982, East China Normal Univer- 
sity; M.Sc. 1985, Shanghai First 
Medical College. Major: Neurobiology 
and Behavior. Shanghai, People's 
Republic of China 

Luongo, Cindy L., B.S. 1985, State University 
of New York at Buffalo. Major: Cell 
Biology and Genetics. East Northport, 
New York 

Maddock, Anne E., B.A. 1985, Yale Univer- 
sity. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Fairfield, Connecticut 

Maki, Robert G., B A. 1985, Northwestern 
University. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Omaha, Nebraska 

Marino, Michael W., BA. 1983- Skidmore 
College; M.S. 1985, University of 
Texas. Major: Cell Biologv' and 
Genetics. Racine, Wisconsin 

Meyers, Lillian R.S., A.B. 1984. Brown Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Chicago, Illinois 

Nussenzveig, Daniel R., M.D. 1980. Univer- 
sity of Sao Paulo. Major: Phy-siology 
and Biophv'sics. Sao Paulo. Brazil 



107 



Patil, NilaJ., B.A. 1980, University of Buffalo. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Buffalo, New York 

Pincus, David W., B.S. 1985, Yale University. 
Hampden, Massachusetts. 

Qiu, Wei-Qiao, M.D. 1982, Peking Medical 
College. Major: Immunology. Peking, 
People's Republic of China 

Ramakrishna, Naren R., BA. 1985, Johns 

Hopkins University. Charleston, West 
Virginia 

Solomon, David H., A.B. 1982, Oberlin 
College. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Montreal, Canada 

Stein, Rebecca L, B.S. 1985, University of 
Michigan. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Grand Rapids, Michigan 



Steiner, Usa E., B.S. 1985, Cornell University. 
Major Developmental Therapy and 
Clinical Investigation. Batavia, New 
York 

Straub, Richard E., B.A. 1982, New College. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. New 
York, New York 

Stricter, Jon W., A.B. 1985, Princeton Univer- 
sity. Major: Physiology and Biophysics. 
Brooklyn, New York 

Tsukuda, Toyoko, A.A. 1975, Laney College; 
B.A. 1977, University of California. 
Major: Molecular Biology. Osaka, Japan 

Yan, Hai, B.S. 1982, Nanjing University. 
Major: Biochemistry. Wuxi City, 
People's Republic of China 

Young, Benjamin, B.A. 1983, University of 
California. Major: Molecular Biology. 
San Diego, Calffornia 



108 



Index 



109 



-if 



Index 



Administration, Register, 9 1 
Admission, 61 
Applications, 6 1 
Application Fee, 6 1 
Awards and Prizes, 67 

Biochemistry, Field of, 7, 71 

Biophysics, see Physiology and Biophysics 

Cell Biology and Genetics, Field and Unit of, 

12, 38,' 72, 81 
Courses, see under individual Fields, Units, 

and Programs 

Degree Recipients, Register, 101 
Degree Requirements, 62 

Developmental Therapy and Clinical Investigation 
Unit of, 42, 82 

Examination, 65 
Executive Committee, 2 

Faculty, Register, 91 

Faculty Advisory Committee, 3 

Faculty and Research Activities, 5 

Medical College Division, 7 

Sloan-Kettering Division, 38 
Fellowships and Scholarships, 67 
Fields, Units, and Programs 

Biochemistry, 7, 71 

Cell Biology and Genetics, 12, 38, 72, 81 
Developmental Therapy and Clinical 

Investigation, 42, 82 
Immunology, 46, 84 
Mic. obiology. Immunology, 

and Pathology, 17, 74 
Molecular Biology, 52, 86 
Neurobiology and Behavior, 2 1 , 76 
Pharmacology, 28, 77 
Physiology and Biophysics, 32, 78 
Financial Assistance, 66 
Foreign Language Requirements. 65 
also see under indiiHdual Fields, 

Units, and Programs 

Genetics, 

see Cell Biology and Genetics 

see Molecular Biology 
Grades, 63 

Health Services, 68 
Housing, see Residence Halls 



Immunology, Unit of, 46, 84 

see also Microbiology', Immunology, 
and Paiholog)' 
In Absentia, 64, 66 

Leave of Absence, 64, 66 
M.D.-Ph.D. Programs, 3, 69 
Medical Scientist Training Programs, 

see M.D.-Ph.D. Programs 
Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, 

Field of, 17, 74 
Molecular Biology, Interdivisional Program in, 

52, 86 

Neurobiology and Behavior, Field of, 21, 76 

Part-time Graduate Study, 63 
Ph.D.-M.D. Program, 4, 69 
Pharmacology', Field of, 28, 77 
Physiology and Biophysics. Field of, 32, 78 
Prizes, see Awards and Prizes 
Provisional Candidacy, 62 

Register. 89 
Registration, 63 

Research Activites, see muier indiiidual 

Fields, Units, and Programs 
Residence and Residence Units. 63 

Transfer of. 64 
Residence Halls. 68 

Requirements and Course Ofiferinp-^ 59 
General, 61 

Medical College Division, 71 
Sloan-Kettering Division, 81 
Interdivisional Program in 
Molecular Biology. 86 

Scholarships, 67 
Special Committee, 62 
Special Students, 62 
Students. Register, 102 
Summer Research. 64 

Thesis. 65 

Tuition and Fees. 65 

Virology, 

see Microbiology. Immunology'. 

and Pathology 
see Molecular Biology 



111 



V